Pathogenicity test of different fungi on date palm causing sudden decline disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Khairpur, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2019
Views (331) Download (22)

Pathogenicity test of different fungi on date palm causing sudden decline disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Khairpur, Pakistan

Wazir Ali Metlo, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, G hulam Sarwar Channa, Naveed Wahid Awan, Manzoor Ali Abro, Hidayatullah, Muneer Ali Bhagat, Muzamil Hussainn Memon, Muhammad Ibrahim Chandio, Ayesha Siddiqua
Int. J. Biosci.15( 6), 89-96, December 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is considered as  one  of  the  most  important  crop  of  the  country and holds  a  very  significant   position   on  the  agriculture horizon of Sindh. Khairpur is the biodiversity center of date palm. Dates plays major role in the socio economic stability of country to increase the national income of Pakistan and is grown in all four provinces. Since last few years the date palm orchards of district Khairpur are suffering from decline disease of unknown etiology. This disease has destroyed hundreds of orchards and puts the negative effects of farmers in those affected areas by creating social and economic problem. The disease has caused not only yield loss but also loss major source of income of the farmer of date palm.  During the present investigation,. The date palm orchards of different areas of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan, were found to suffer from a decline disease that is severely damaging the trees and becoming epidemic in some areas. Typical disease symptoms include whitening and dying of the foliage followed by sequential death of the branches and whole tree. The pathogencity test on date palm seedlings were carried out on most commercial growing date palm varieties like Aseel, Fasli and Karbalian, by three different methods. The frequency of F. solani followed by P. ucladium and H. sativum was significantly highest on all the studied date varieties ranging from 30-57% on Aseel (57%). Var. Aseel appeared as the most susceptible as significantly higher fungi were isolated from it as compared to the vars. Fasli and Karblian. The inoculations of F. solani alone or with P. ucladium or H. sativum confirm the pathogenic nature of F. solani which not only greatly reduced the plant growth but also caused significant plant mortality and disease severity. Whereas, P. ucladium and H. sativum were found less pathogenic causing disease development and plant mortality. The Fusarium solani alone showed typical symptoms of disease in soil inoculation methods followed by stem inoculation method and spraying method. Whereas such symptoms were not observed on plants inoculated with combination in Fusarium solani + Phoma ucladium followed by Fusarium solani + Helminthosporium sativum and Phoma ucladium & Helminthosporium sativum alone.


Abdalla MY, Al-Rokiba A, Moretti A, Mule G. 2000. Pathogenicity of toxigenic Fusarium proliferatum from date palm in Saudia Arabia. Plant Disease 84, 321-324.

Abul-Soad AA, Maitlo WA, Markhand GS. Mahdi SM. 2011. Date palm wilt disease (sudden decline syndrome) in Pakistan, symptoms and remedy. The blessed tree; Khalifa International Date Palm Award, UAE, 38-43.

Al-Akaidy HKH. 1994. Science and Technology of Date Palm Cultivation. Ekal Press, Iraq.

Al-Yaseri II, Ismail AZ, Mohammed AA. 2006. A preliminary study on spread of date palm pests in Iraq. Ninth Arab Cong. Plant Prot. 19-23 November, Damascus, Syria.

Baraka MA, Fatma Radwan M, Arafat KH. 2011.  Survey and identification of major fungi causing root rot on date palm and their relative importance in Egypt.

Baudion AB. 1988. Laboratory Exercises in Plant Pathology: An Instruction Kit. St. Paul, Minnesota the American Phytopathological Society, 314.

Dawson VHW. 1982. Date production and protection. FAO plant production and protection paper No. 35. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation.

Djerbi M. 1983. Diseases of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Regional Project for Palm and Dates Research Centre in Near East and North Africa. Baghdad, Iraq.106-110.

El-Deeb HM, Lashin SM, Arab YA. 2007. Distribution and pathogenesis of date palm fungi in Egypt. Third International Date-palm Conference, 31 March 2007, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

El-Zawahry M, Aida El-Morsi MA, Abd-Elrazik AA. 2000. Occurrence of fungal diseases on date palm trees and off-shoots in New Valley governorate and their biological control. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences 31(3), 189-212.

Feather TV, Munnecke DE, Carpenter JB. 1989. The occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum on Phoenix canariensis, a potential danger to date production in California. Plant Disease 73, 78-80.

Jatoi MA, Markhand Z, Solangi N. 2009. Dates in Sindh: facts and figures. Proceedings of the “International Dates Seminar” organized by Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan on 29 July, 2009.

Maitlo WA, Markhand GS, Abul-Soad AA, Lodhi AM, Jatoi MA. 2013. Chemical Control of Fusarium solani causing Sudden Decline oDf Date palm in Khairpur, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 45 (SI): 7-11.

Maitlo WA, Markhand GS, Abul-Soad AA, Pathan MA, Lodhi AM. 2009. Comprehensive study on pathogen causing sudden decline disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Proceedings of the first International Dates Seminar, Date Palm Research Institute, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, 71-76.

Mani A, Handoo ZA, Livingston S. 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in the Sultanate of Oman. Nematropica 35, 135-144.

Mansoori B, Kord MH. 2006. Yellow death: A disease of date palm in Iran caused by Fusarium solani. J. Phytopathology 154, 125-127.

Masood A, Saeed S, Silveira SF, Akem CN, Hussain N, Farooq M. 2011. Quick decline of Mango in Pakistan: Survey and Pathogenicity of fungi isolated from mango treeand bark beetle. Pakistan Journal Botany 43(3), 1793-1798.

Rashed MF, Abdel-Hafeez NE. 2001.  Decline of date palm trees in Egypt. 2nd Int. Conf. Date Palm, 25-27 March Al Ain, UAE. 401-407.

Sarhan ART. 2001. A study on the fungi causing decline of date palm trees in middle of Iraq. 2nd Int.  Conf. Date Palm, 25-27 March, Al Ain, UAE 424-430.