Pharmacological efficacy of local complementary and alternative medicines: Psidium guajava, Vitex negundo, Moringa oleifera and Blumea balsamefira

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2017
Views (347) Download (14)

Pharmacological efficacy of local complementary and alternative medicines: Psidium guajava, Vitex negundo, Moringa oleifera and Blumea balsamefira

Apple Omos Dano, Lucilyn Lahoylahoy Maratas
J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 5), 194-200, November 2017.
Certificate: JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


The marked increase of use and consumption of herbal remedies is mainly due to the beneficial uses it has been reported to have. Despite of its popular use as complementary and alternative medicines, there is limited scientific data available about the safety and toxicological evaluations of these herbal preparations. Therefore, it is the aim of the study to carry out a preliminary antibacterial and toxicological determination of both fresh and air-dried leaves of Psidium guajava, Vitex negundo, Moringa oleifera and Blumea balsamifera. The herbal preparations varied with its antibacterial activities and compared to the standard antibiotic chloramphenicol, the resulting zones of inhibition of the various extracts were significantly smaller. However, the results signifies promising possibility of being able to purify active agents against certain pathogenic bacteria.  The non-inhibitive properties of other extracts also indirectly support some folkloric claims to help assuage some medical conditions that are not of bacterial origins. The determination of the low mutagenic potential of the herbal preparations infer that these are relatively free from possible carcinogens.


Amagloh FK, Benang A. 2009. Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seed as coagulant for water purification. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(1), 119-123.

Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. 2007. Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Research21, 17-125.

Awodele O,  Oreagba IA, Odoma S, da Silva JAT, Osunkalu VO.  2012.  Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139(2), 330-336.

Ayandele AA, Adebiyi AO.  2007. The Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of extracts of Olax subscorpioidea. African Journal of Biotechnology African Journal of Biotechnology 6(7), 868-870.

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Giménez R. 2006. Beneficial effects of green tea–a review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25(2), 79-99.

Charoensin S.  2014. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Moringa oleifera leaves.  Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 8(7), 318-325.

Chyu KY, Babbidge SM, Zhao X, Dandillaya R, Rietveld AG, Yano J, Dimayuga P, Cercek B, Shah PK. 2004. Differential effects of green tea-derived catechin on developing versus established atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. Circulation. 109(20), 2448-53.

Dish L, Drewel J, Fricker G. 2017. Dissolution Testing of Herbal Medicines: Challenges and Regulatory Standards in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Asia. Dissolution Technologies.

Ekor M. 2014.  The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front. Pharmacol 4(177).

Harborne S, David JB, David P.  2003. Brewing up the Latest Tea Research – The age-old Camelia sinensis plant is the source of all nonherbal teas. Agricultural Research.

Hassan HS, Sule MI, Musa AM, Musa KY, Abubakar MS, Hassan AS. 2012 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Crude Saponin Extracts from Five Nigerian Medicinal Plants. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and  Alternative Medicine 9(2), 250–255.

Houri D,  Yoshioka S, Matsumotot K, Amikawa K, Tanaka S, Nagata N.  2008.  Elements and Physical Properties of Green Tea Decoction using Hakusan-Meisui Mineral Water.  Yonago Acta Medica 51, 61-67.

Jawahar M, Ravipaul S, Jeyaseelan M. 2008. In vitro Regeneration of Vitex negundo L.-A Multipurpose Woody Aromatic Medicinal Shrub.  Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology 18(1).

Lal S, Jain S, Prakash O, Jain N.  2006. Shambhalu: An important medicinal Plant. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciencces. 7, 45–55.

Maron DM, Ames BN. 1983. Revised methods for the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutation Research/ Environmental Mutagenesis and Related Subjects. 113(3-4), 173-215.

Mbata TI, Debiao LU, Saikia A.  2008. Antibacterial Activity of the Crude Extract of Chinese Green Tea (Camelia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(10).

Mishra G, Singh P, Verma R, Kumar S, Srivastav S, Jha KK, Khosa RL.  2011. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera plant: An overview. DerPharmacia Lettre 3, 141-164.

Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S, Simpson AGB, Worm B. 2011 How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLoS Biol 9(8), e1001127.

Oduro I, Ellis WO, Owusu D. 2008. Nutritional potential of two leafy vegetables: Moringa oleifera and Ipomea batatas leaves. Scientific Research and Essay 3(2), 057-060.

Prashith KTR, Manasa M, Poornima G, Abhipsa V, Rekha C, Upashe SP, Raghavendra HL. 2013. Antibacterial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potential of Vitex Negundo Var. Negundo and Vitex Negundo Var. Purpurascens – A Comparative Study. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal 2(3), 59-68.

Reza MSH, Mandal C, Alam KA, Salam A, Rahman MA, Amin MR, Huda MN, Ghosh NC, Ali MR, Ahmed F. 2007. Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antinociceptive Studies of Hoya parasitica. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2(8), 753-756.

Rouseff RL, Onagbola EO, Smoot JM, Stelinski LL. 2008. Sulfur Volatiles in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Leaves: Possibile Defense Mechanism. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56, 8905-8910.

Sabale V, Patel V, Paranjape A, Arya C, Sakarkar SN, Sabale PM. 2008. Moringa oleifera (Drumstick): An overview. Pharmacognosy Reviews 2(4), 7-13.

Santos R. 2000. Philippine Herb Index.

Sharma N, Gupta PC, Rao Ch V2012.  Nutrient content, mineral, content and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus viridis and Moringa oleifera leaves. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants 6(3), 253-259.

Tasduq S, Peerzada K, Gupta B, Gupta V, Johri R. 2008. Negundoside, an irridiod glycoside from leave of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride. World Journal of Gastroenterology 14(23), 3693-709.

Teixeira RO, Camparoto ML, Mantovani MS, Vicentini VEP. 2003. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays. Genetics and Molecular Biology 26(4).

Zhang Q, Tang X, Lu Q, Zhang Z, Rao J, Le AD.  2006. Green tea extraction process and epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibit hypoxia-and-serum-induced HIF-1A protein accumulation and VEGF expression in human cervical carcinoma and hepatoma cells. Molecular  Cancer Therapeutics 5(5), 1227-38.