Phenology, life form and leaf spectra of the vegetation of kokarai valley, district swat

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2016
Views (268) Download (10)

Phenology, life form and leaf spectra of the vegetation of kokarai valley, district swat

Asim, Zafar Iqbal, Faizul Haq, Ajmal Iqbal
J. Bio. Env. Sci.9( 3), 23-31, September 2016.
Certificate: JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Kokarai valley District Swat is rich in plant biodiversity. The plant species varies in their phenological behavior, life form and leaf size spectra. There is no previous record in the area and therefore the study was designed to explore the species diversity, phenology, life form and leaf size spectra of the Kokarai valley that indicates the climate of the area. Phenological behaviour of plant species were recorded from May-August (81.29%) and September-November (18.70%). The dominant life form was therophytes (39.10%) and dominant leaf size spectra was microphyll (45.81%). The therophytic life form indicates the disturbed vegetation while the microphyll leaf spectra indicates that the area are moist temperate and receive a good amount of rain fall. It can be concluded from the study that the phenerophtes should be restored through habitat restoration and the anthropogenic effects on forest should be minimized.


Ahmad H, Alam M, Haq F. 2010. Species diversity and conservation status of the diversity of vascular plants of Nandiar Khwar District Batagram, Pakistan. Workshop on international symposium on biology of rare and endemic plant species. Bio-rare symposium may Fethiye-Mugla, Turkey (26 – 29), 2010.

Anonymous. 2000. Census, report of district Swat. Population census organization, statistical division govt. Pak, Islamabad 10-89 p.

Beg AR. 1975. Wild life habitats of Pakistan. Bull no.5, Pakistan forest institute, Peshawar.

Champion HG, Seth SK, Khattak GM. 1965. Forest types of Pakistan. Pak. forest int. Peshawar.

Greller AM. 1988. Vegetational composition leaf size and climatic warmth in an altitudinal sequence of evergreen forest in Srilanka”. Tropical Ecology, 121 -145.

Haq F. 2015. Phytosociological attributes of different vegetational zones of Nandiar Khuwar catchment area. PhD thesis department of botany Hazara University Mansehra, Pakistan.

Haq F, Ahmad H, Iqbal Z. 2015a. Vegetation composition and ecological gradients of subtropical-moist temperate ecotonal forests of Nandiar Khuwar catchment, Pakistan. Bangladesh Journal of Botany 44(2), 267-276.

Haq F, Ahmad H, Iqbal Z. 2015b. Vegetation description and phytoclimatic gradients of subtropical forests of Nandiar Khuwar catchment District Battagram. Pakistan Journal of Botany 47(4), 1399-1405.

Haq F, Ahmad H, Ullah R, Iqbal Z. 2012. Species Diversity and Ethno Botanical Classes of the Flora of Allai Valley District Battagram Pakistan. International Journal of Plant Research 2(4), 111-123.

Hamayun M. 2005. Studies on ethnobotany, conservation and plant diversity of Utror and Garbal valleys district Swat, Pakistan. Ph.D. Thesis department of plant sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Khan, W, Ahmad H, Haq F, Islam M, Bibi F. 2012. Present status of moist temperate vegetation of Thandiani Forests District Abbottabad Pakistan.  International Journal of Biosciences. 10(2), p. 80-88.

Malik ZH. 2005. Comparative study on the vegetation of Ganga Chotti and Bedori hills district Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir with special reference to range conditions. Ph.D thesis university of Peshawar.

Mclaren KP, Mcdonald MA. 2005. Seasonal patterns of flowering and fruiting in a drytropical forest in Jamaica. Biotropica 37:584-590.

Nasir E, Ali SI. 1971–1994. Flora of West Pakistan. Karachi: university of Karachi, p. 35-890.

Nasir E, Ali SI. 1970-89. Flora of Pakistan. No. 1-190. National herbarium, PARC, Islamabad and department of botany, university of Karachi, Pakistan.

Nasir E, Ali SI. 1972. Flora of West Pakistan, an annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir by R.R. Stewart: Fakhri press, Karachi.

Qadir SA, Tareen. 1987. Life form and leaf size spectra of the flora of Quetta District”. In: I. Ilahi and F. Hussain (eds.), modern trends plant science and research Pakistan, 59–62 p. Botany department university of Peshawar; 59–62 p.

Raunkiaer C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plants geography. Clarendon press, oxford, 623.

Sharma N. 2003. Biodiversity characterization at landscape level using RS and GIS in District, Jammu. PhD. Thesis, university of Jammu, Jammu, J&K, India.

Sher Z, Khan ZD. 2007. Floristic composition, life form and leaf spectra of the vegetation of Chagharzi Valley, District Buner. Pakistan Journal of Plant sciences, 13(1), 57 66.

Yousfzai SA, Khan N, Iqbal A, Wahab M, Siddiqui F. 2010. Ethno-veterinary study of Marghazar Valley. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology 7, 273.