Physical, chemical and some trace metal analysis of Ugbogui River, Edo State, Nigeria

Paper Details

Research Paper 11/12/2023
Views (292) Download (33)

Physical, chemical and some trace metal analysis of Ugbogui River, Edo State, Nigeria

Iyagbaye O. Rich, Iyagbaye Louis
J. Bio. Env. Sci.23( 6), 47-55, December 2023.
Certificate: JBES 2023 [Generate Certificate]


The physical, chemical parameters and some trace metals of Ugbogui in Edo State, Nigeria were investigated from August 2015 to April 2016. Four stations were studied from upstream to downstream using standard methods. A total of thirty-three (33) physical and chemical characteristics and trace metal contents were examined; Air and water temperatures, depth, transparency, colour, turbidity, flow velocity, pH, total alkalinity, conductivity, and dissolved solids. Other includes dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation, biochemical oxygen demand, chloride, phosphate, sodium, nitrate, sulphate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, vanadium, and chromium. Eleven (11) parameters exhibited clear seasonal variations. However, there were highly significant differences (p< 0.01) in the values of depth, colour, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand5, chemical oxygen demand, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, sulphate, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium among the stations. The anthropogenic activities had negatively impacted at station 3 of the river, although most of the recorded values were still within permissible limits.


Akpan MM, George UU, Ekpo EA. 2015. Studies on the Physico-chemical Parameters of the freshwater segment of the Lower Cross River System, South Eastern Nigeria. New York Science Journal 8(7), 60-65.

Amadi LO, Efiuvwevwere BJO. 2015. Temporal Variations in Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Ogodogbo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy 10(2), 94-106.

Anyanwu ED, Ikomi RB, Arimoro F. 2013. Water quality zooplankton of the Ogba River, Benin City, Nigeria. African Journal of Aquatic Science 38(2), 193-199.

Arimoro FO, Ikomi RB, Iwegbue CMA. 2007. Water quality changes in relation to Diptera community patterns and diversity measured at an organic effluent impacted stream in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Elsevier 7, 541-552.

Badsi H, Ali HO, Loudiki M, Aamiri A. 2010. Phytoplankton diversity and community composition along salinity gradient of Massa Estuary. American Journal of Human Ecology 1(2), 58-64.

Braide SA, Izonfuo PU, Obunwo CC. 2004. Water quality of Miniweja stream, a swamp forest stream receiving non-point source waste discharges in Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Scientia Africana 3(3), 1-8.

Chapman D. 1996. Water Quality Assessments- A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring, Second Edition. F & FN Spon, London. 651pp.

Edegbene AO, Arimoro FO. 2012. Ecological status of Owan River, Southern Nigeria using Aquatic Insects as bioindicators. Journal of Aquatic Sciences 27(2), 34-48.

Edokpayi CA, Olowoporoku AO, Uwadiae RE. 2012. The hydrochemistry and macrobenthic fauna characteristics of an urban drainage. Greek Int. Journal of Biodi. and Cons. 2(8), 196-203.

Egborge ABM, Okoro JI, Alawani OA, Uraih N. 1986. Thermal and chemical pollution of Benin River its tributary, the Jamieson, Nigeria. Nig. Jour. Of Applied Sci. 2, 121- 149.

Egborge ABM. 1971. The chemical hydrology of River Oshun, Nigeria. Archiology Hydrobiology 70, 257-271.

Ekeh IB, Sikoki FD. 2003. The state and seasonal variability of some physio-chemical parameters in the New Calabar River, Nigeria. Supplementa Ad Acta Hydrobiol. 5, 45-60.

Ewa EE, Awoyemi OK, Njar GN, Gani BS. 2011. Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metal Analysis of River Olosun, Ibadan, Oyo State. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 1(1), 14-20.

Fatoki SO, Gogwana P, Ogunfowokan AO. 2003. Pollution assessment in the Keiskamma River and in the impoundment downstream. Water SA. 29(3), 183-187.

Holden MJ, Green J. 1960. The hydrology and plankton of the River Sokoto. Journal. Animal. Ecology. 29, 65-84.

Ikhuoriah SO, Oronsaye CG, Adebanjo IA. 2015. Zooplankton communities of the River Ossiomo, Ologbo, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Animal Research International 12(3), 2249-2259.

Ikomi RB, Arimoro FO, Odihirin KO. 2003. Composition, distribution and abundance of macroinvertebrates of the upper reaches of River Ethiope, Delta State, Nigeria. The Zoologist 3, 68-81.

Imoobe TOT, Oboh IP. 2003. Physical and Chemical Hydrology of Jamieson River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Benin Sci. Dig. 1, 105-119.

Imoobe TOT, Tawari-Fufeyin P, Ejoh AS. 2008. Community structure of crustacean zooplankton in Ekpan Creek, a perturbed tributary of Warri River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. African Scientist 9(4), 123-134.

Iwuoha GN, Osuji LC. 2012. Changes in surface water physio-chemical parameters following the dredging of Otamiri and Nworie Rivers, Imo State of Nigeria. Res. J. Chem. Sci. 2(3), 7-11.

Kaizer AN, Osakwe SA. 2010. Physiochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in water samples from five river systems in Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. 14(1), 83-87.

Mouri G, Takizawa S, Oki T. 2011. Spatial and temporal variation in nutrient parameters in stream water in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan: Effects of land cover and human impact. Journal of Environmental Management 92(7), 1837-1848.

Ogbeibu AE. 2014. Biostatistics: A Practical Approach to Research and Data Handling. Mindex Publishing. Benin City, Nigeria. 268pp.

Ogbeibu AE, Oribhabor BJ, Okaka CE. 2012. The gastrointestinal helminth parasites of the threadfin fish, Polydactylus quadrifilis (Family: Polynemidae) in a Niger Delta Mangrove creek, Nigeria. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(4), 240-243.

Ogwo PA, Okereke IJ. 2014. Post-impact analysis of sediments and macro bottom fauna of Osondu River in Okigwe, Imo State, Nigeria. Res. J. of Agric. and Environ. Mgt. 3(5), 259-262.

Olomukoro JO, Dirisu A. 2014. Macroinvertebrate Community and Pollution Tolerance Index in Edion and Omodo Rivers in Derived Savannah Wetlands in Southern Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences 7 (1), 19-24.

Olomukoro JO, Egborge ABM. 2004. Hydrobiological studies on Warri River, Nigeria. Part II: seasonal trend in the physic-chemical limnology, Tropical freshwater biology 12, 9-23.

Omoigberale MO, Eweka OI. 2010. Evaluation of heavy of the Palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Herklots. 1851 in Ovia River, Nigeria. Biosci. Res. Commun. 22, 247-254.

Omoigberale MO, Ogbeibu AE. 2010. Environmental Impact of Oil Exploration and Production on the Macrobenthic Invertebrate Fauna of Osse River, Southern Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Science 4 (2), 101-114.

Onuwudinjo CC. 1990. The hydrology and plankton of Benin River, Nigeria, PhD thesis, University of Benin, Benin-City, Pp 345.

Rencher AC. 2003. Methods of multivariate analysis, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. United State. 738pp.

Rim-Rukeh A, Agbozu IE. 2013. Assessment of the impact of deadhead logs on the water quality in selected tropical streams in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Basic res. J. of soil and environ. Sci. 1(2), 20-25.

Rim-Rukeh A, Ikhifa GO, Okokoyo PA. 2006. Effects of agricultural activities on the water quality of Orogodo River, Agbor, Nig. J. Appl. Sci. Res. 2(5), 256-259.

Santi L, Tavares M. 2009. Polychaetes assemblage of an impacted estuary, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography 57(4), 287-303.

Tebbutt THY. 1992. Principle of water quality, 5th edition Elsevier Sci. and tech. books, United State. 288pp.

Udebuana OO, Irubor K, Mansoor S. 2015. Physiochemical factors affecting microbenthic-invertebrates distribution in the bottom sediments of Okhuo River. Journal of natural sciences research 5, 86-98.

Udofia SI, Owoh PW, Attah VI, Thomas AD. 2014. Assessment of plant species composition in Ayan Nsit sacred forest of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Nig. J. of Agric., food and Environ. 10(2), 34-37.

United Nations Environment Programme (2008). Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health, 2nd Edition. United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring Systems, Ontario. 120pp.

Uwadiae RE. 2014. Environmental characteristics and community structure of benthic macroinvertebrate of Epe Lagoon, Nigeria. Int. Journal of Environ. Sci. 3(1), 36-44.

Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM. 1997. Human dominance of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277(5325), 494-499.

Wogu MD, Okaka CE. 2011.  Pollution studies on Nigeria Rivers: heavy metals in surface water of Warri River, Delta State. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 1(3), 7-12.