Physico-morphological response and fruit performance index of four different grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)varieties grown under semi-arid environmental condition of Balochistan-Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2019
Views (348) Download (7)

Physico-morphological response and fruit performance index of four different grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)varieties grown under semi-arid environmental condition of Balochistan-Pakistan

Noor-Ud-Din, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Kanval Shaukat, Muhammad Anwar Panezai, Muhammed Alam Mangal, Manzoor Iqbal Khattak, Mohammed Kashif, Mahjabeen Tafazzul, Abdul Samad
Int. J. Biosci.15( 5), 282-295, November 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


The study area (Mastung) is the main growing region of thecommercially important fruit crops especially grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), therefore the main objective of this study was to examine approximately all important grape characteristics of four local varieties (Saibi, Kaduko, Kishmishi and Aitha) of Mastung region and the results revealed novel information required to explain best grapes for farming. Allphysio-morphologicalattributes and fruit performance index of examined grapes varieties were determined through different standard techniques.Data showed the highest average No. of bunches/vine and No. of berries per vine (66.33/vine and 5549/vine) were recorded in ‘Kaduko’ while the maximum No of berry per bunch (124.0/bunch) was found in ‘Kishmishi’ variety. Statistics regarding soluble solids concentrations (SSC) in different grape berries at harvest exhibited significant variation that ranged from 29.2 – 34.4 %. The range of total sugars in four grapes varieties were 15.6 – 21.5 %. Leaf area index (LAI) and Relative Growth Rate (RGR) in four grape varieties ranged between 1.24 – 1.4 (m2 m-2) m2/m2 and 12.0 – 12.7 cm cm-1 month-1 respectively.Resultalso indicated that the grape variety ‘Kishmishi’ was found as early variety, ‘Saibi’ and ‘Kaduko’ as mid and ‘Aitha’ variety was recorded as late variety.Statistical analysis indicated that almost all investigated grapes berry morphological and yield variables found significantly different among the four grapes varieties at P≤ 0.05 significance level.Data concerning Fruit quality assessment (FQA) by fruit Quality characteristics/fruit performance index (FPI) and valuation classes designated that the grape variety ‘Kishmishi’ and ‘Saibi’ owed to the uppermost grade points and decent economic value and are predictable to be the best performers. So, the grapes variety ‘Kishmishi’ and ‘Saibi’ are recommended to be cultivated in the agro-climatic conditions of Mastung (study area).


Al-Eid M, Lim S, Park KW, Fitzpatrick B, Han CH, Kwak K, Hong, J, Cooke G. 2014. Facile synthesis of metal-free organic dyes featuring a thienylethynyl spacer for dye sensitized solar cells. Dyes and Pigments 104, p 197-203.

Amerine MA. 1973. Laboratory procedures for enologists.

AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.

Artés-Hdez F, Artes F, Allende A. 2002, August. Sugar composition changes in’autumn seedless’table grape during long term cold storage. International Horticultural Congress: Issues and Advances in Postharvest Horticulture 628(26), 363-366.

Aslam A, Leghari SK, Asrar M, Saeed S, Shafi M, Siddiqi MF, Sumalani MA, Maham F, Merri AA. 2019. Physico-chemical diversity and microbial burden in four dates palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit variety grown in agro-climatic condition of Turbat, Balochistan-Pakistan. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17 (3), 6625-6642.

Ayatullah Leghari SK, Shaukat K, Khattak MI, Panezai MA, Marri AA, Ismail T, Shagufta. 2019. Influence of sun and shade on the growth, yield and quality of Vitis Vinifera L. (Grapes) under semi-arid environmental conditions. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17(4), 8847-8864.

Bavaresco L, Poni S. 2003. Effect of calcareous soil on photosynthesis rate, mineral nutrition, and source‐sink ratio of table grape. Journal of plant nutrition 26(10-11), 2123-2135.

Bertamini M, Nedunchezhian N. 2005. Grapevine growth and physiological responses to iron deficiency. Journal of plant nutrition 28(5), 737-749.

Chauhan A. 2010. Photosynthestic pigments changes in some selected tees induced by automobile exhaust in Dehradun, Uttarakh and New York Science Journal 3, 45-51.

Chaves MM, Santos TP, Souza CR, Ortuno MF, Rodrigues ML. 2007. Deficit irrigation in grapevines improves water use efficiency while controlling vigor and production quality. Annals of Applied Biology 150, 237-252.

Engelstaedter S, Tegen I, Washington R. 2006. North African dust emission and transport. Earth-Science Reviews 79, 73-100.

Flora LF. 1977. Processing and quality characteristics of Muscadine grapes. Journal of Food Science 42, 935–940.

Galmés J, Medrano H, Flexas J. 2007. Photosynthetic limitations in response to water stress and recovery in Mediterranean plants with different growth forms.New phytologist 175, 81-93.

Govindaraju M, Ganeshkumar RS, Muthukumaran VR, Visvanathan P. 2012. Identification and evaluation of air-pollution-tolerant plants around lignite-based thermal power station for greenbelt development. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 19, 1210-1223.

Hortwitz W. 1960. Official and tentative methods of analysis. – Association of the Official Agriculture Chemist, Washington, DC 9, 320-341.

Horwitz W. 2010. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Volume I, agricultural chemicals, contaminants, drugs/edited by William Horwitz. Gaithersburg (Maryland): AOAC International, 1997.

Jackson DI, Lombard PB. 1993. Environment and management practices affecting grape composition and wine quality: a review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 4, 409–430.

Jiménez S, Gogorcena Y, Hévin C, Rombolà AD, Ollat EN. 2007. Nitrogen nutrition influences some biochemical responses to iron deficiency in tolerant and sensitive genotypes of Vitis.Plant Soil 290, 343-355.

Johnson GR, Cartwright C. 2005. Genotype × shade effects for western hemlock. – Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35, 1496-1501.

Johnson L, Levine A, Smith R, Smythe T. 2009. The 2009 horizon report.Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Cover photograph:“Chapped Lips” by Vox_Efx on Flickr.,3.

Johnson LA, Carroll OE. 1973. Organic acid and sugar contents of Scuppernong grapes during ripening. Journal of Food Science 38, 21-24.

Kanagarla NSSA, Valli, Kuppast IJ, Veerashekar T, Reddy CL. 2013. A review on benefits and uses of Vitis vinifera (Grape). Research & Reviews in Biosciences 7, 175-180.

Kara Z, Sabir A. 2010. Effects of Herba Green application on vegetative developments of some grapevine rootstocks during nursery propagation in glasshouse.In 2nd International Symposium on Sustainable Development, June 8–9, Sarajevo, 127–132.

Karami N, Moubayed N, Outbib R. 2017. General review and classification of different MPPT Techniques. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68, 1-18.

Khan AS, Ahmad N, Malik AU, Basharat A, Saleem Rajwana IA. 2011. Pheno-physiological Revelation of Grapes Germplasm Grown in Faisalabad, Pakistan. –International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 13, 791–795.

Khan MI, Harsha PS, Giridhar P, Ravishankar GA. 2012. Pigment identification, nutritional composition, bioactivity, and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of Rivina humilis L. berries, potential source of betalains. LWT.Food Science and Technology 47, 315-323.

Kliewer WM, Weaver RJ. 1971. Effect of Crop Level and Leaf Area on Growth, Composition, and Coloration of Tokay’ Grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 22, 172-177.

Ksouri R, Debez A, Mahmoudi H, Ouerghi Z, Gharsalli M, Lachal M. 2007. Genotypic variability within Tunisian grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) facing bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 45, 315-322.

Larsen CG, Anderson AO, Oppenheim JJ, Matsushima K. 1989. Production of interleukin-8 by human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in response to interleukin-1 or tumour necrosis factor. Immunology 68, 31.

Leghari SK, Zaid MA, Sarangzai AM, Faheem M, Shawani GR Ali W. 2014. Effect of road side dust pollution on the growth and total chlorophyll contents in Vitis Vinifera L. (Grape). African Journal of Biotechnology 13, 1237-1242.

Leghari SK, Akbar A, Qasim S, Ullah S, Asrar M, Rohail H, Ahmed S, Mehmood K, Ali I. 2019. Estimating Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Some Trees and Ornamental Plant Species for the Construction of Green Belts.Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 28, 1759-1769.

Leghari SK, Zaidi M. 2013. Effect of air pollution on the leaf morphology of common plant species of Quetta city. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45, 447-454.

Lichtenthaler HK. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic bio-membranes. In Methods in enzymology 148, 350-382. Academic Press.

Mehmet D, Sabir A. 2016. Response of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves to Different Leaf Fertilizers under a Semi-Arid Condition.Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus 15, 145-155.

Mira de Orduna R. 2010. Climate change associated effects on grape and wine quality and production. Food Research International 43, 1844–1855.

Nassiri-Asl M, Hosseinzadeh H. 2009. Re- view of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Compounds, Phytother. Res. 23, 1197-1204.

Papasavvas E, Azzoni L, Pistilli M, Hancock A, Reynolds G, Gallo C, Ondercin J, Kostman JR, Mounzer K, Shull J, Montaner LJ. 2008. Increased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 plasma levels and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 during antiretroviral therapy interruption and retention of elevated soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 levels following resumption of antiretroviral therapy.AIDS (London, England) 22, 1153.

Poudel-Tandukar K, Nanri A, Matsushita Y, Sasaki S, Ohta M, Sato M, Mizoue T. 2009. Dietary intakes of α-linolenic and linoleic acids are inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels among Japanese men.Nutrition Research 29, 363-370.

Prajapati SK, Tripathi BD. 2008. Anticipated Performance Index of some tree species considered for green belt development in and around an urban area: A case study of Varanasi city, India. Journal of Environmental Management 88, 1343-1349.

Ruck BJ, Brammer KW, Page MG, Coombes JD. 1969. The detection and characterization of an induced RNA polymerase in the chorioallantoic membranes of embryonated eggs infected with influenza A2 virus.Virology 39, 31-41.

Sabir A, Yazar K. 2015. Diurnal dynamics of stomatal conductance and leaf temperature of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to daily climatic variables. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus 14, 3-15.

Sabir A. 2016.Vegetative and Reproductive Growth Responses of Grapevine cv. ‘Italia’ (Vitis vinifera L.) Grafted on Different Rootstocks to Contrasting Soil Water Status.Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 18, 1681-1692.

Shiraishi M, Fujishima HH, Chijiwa HH. 2010. Evaluation of table grape genetic resources for sugar, organic acid and amino acid composition of berries. Euphytica 174, 1–13.

Steel RG, Torrie JH. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd McGraw-Hill, New York.

Tang FC. 1978. Chemical analysis of grape varieties grown in Lubbock Texas. – M.Sc. Thesis, Texas Tech University, Texas.

Tangolar SG, Unlu G, Tangolar S, Dasgan Y, Yilmaz N. 2008. Use of in vitromethod to evaluate some grapevine varieties for tolerance and susceptibility to sodium bicarbonate-induced chlorosis.In Vitro Cell Dev Biol-Plant 44, 233-237.

Tripti AK, Gautam M. 2007. Biochemical parameters of plant and indicators of air pollution.Journal of Environmental Biology 28, 127-132.

Wang S, Yuan W, Shang K. 2006. The impact of different kinds of dust events on PM10 pollution in northern China. Atmospheric Environment 40, 7975-7982.