Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | June 1, 2015

VIEWS 1
| Download 2

Physicochemical parameters of the western harbor of Alexandria and their effect on the corrosion rate of steel during 2012

Hermine Ramzy Zaki Tadros

Key Words:


J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(6), 268-282, June 2015

Certification:

JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

This study focuses on the physicochemical parameters of the Western Harbor of Alexandria and the corrosion rate of steel in seawater by using weight loss technique. Triplicate surface water samples were collected seasonally from fixed 10 stations from winter to autumn 2012. The results indicated that the temperature fluctuated between 16.2oC to 27.6oC, with annual average of 22.62oC. Salinity differed between 22.7 and 37.9, with annual average 34.34. The pH ranged from 7.93 to 8.92. Total alkalinity varied between 1.209 and 4.2meq/l, with an annual average of 3.13meq/l. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 1.136 to 15.445 mg/l, the annual average was 8.324 mg/l. Biochemical oxygen demand fluctuated between 0.12 and 10.45 mg/l; the annual average was 3.62 mg/l. Oxidizable Organic Matter ranged between 0.19 and 7.2mgO2/l, with annual average 1.551mgO2/l. While nutrient salts (µmol) displayed wide ranges and annual averages; 0.075- 9.75µmol/l; 2.451µmol/l, 0.476-51.23µmol/l; 13.148µmol/l, 0.005-32.35µmol/l 9.311µmol/l, 0.547-35µmol/l; 9.941µmol/l, 0.702-16.15µmol/l; 3.59µmol/l for phosphate, silicate, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia respectively. N/P ratio showed that phosphorus was the limiting factor. Sulfate fluctuated between 1.015 and 3.25 g/l with annual average of 1.829 g/l. The weight loss was calculated from the differences between the steel panels immersion date in seawater and after 24hrs of immersion in seawater on laboratory scale and the corrosion rate of steel was calculated. The corrosion rates of steel differed between 0.2321 and 0.8998mpy. The annual average was 0.5099mpy. The Water quality index showed that stations 6, 1 and 2 suffered from pollution during summer accompanied by highest silicate, oxidizable organic matter, nitrate and sulfate.

VIEWS 1

Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
http://innspub.net
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Physicochemical parameters of the western harbor of Alexandria and their effect on the corrosion rate of steel during 2012

Abdel-Aziz NE. 2002. Impact of water circulation and discharged waters on zooplankton dynamics in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries 6(1), 1–21.

Aida BT, Hermine RZT. 2009. Environmental parameters and steel corrosion studies of eastern coastal area, Alexandria, Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Oceanography 5(1&2), 29-44.

Aida BT, Rokaya HG. 2006. Effect of physicochemical and biological parameters of seawater on steel corrosion on laboratory scale. 4th Conference on scientific Outlook & Technology Development in the Arab World, Syria Arab Republic, Extended Abstract, 1054-1056.

Aida BT, Rokaya HG, Hermine RZT, Manal GM, Ebtessam EE, Ahmad R. 2012. Change of the Corrosion Rate of Steel with the Sulphate Ions in Seawater. Journal of The Arab Institute of Navigation 28, 7-18.

American Public Health Association (APHA). 2005. Standard Methods for Determination of Water and Wastewater. 21st ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., USA.

Chiaudani G, Vighi M. 1978. Metodologia standard di saggio algale per lo studiodella contaminazione delle acque marine, Quad. Instituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque (IRSA). 39, 120 p.

Davis AS. 2005. Factors that Influence Corrosion of Materials and How Modeling May Predict these Effects. Tri-Service Corrosion Conference, 1-15.

Davis  JC.  1986.  Statistics  and  Data  analysis  in Geology. John Wiley and Sons. Inc., Nealysis, NewYork, 257 p. https://www.scribd.com/…/Statistics-and-Data-Analysis.

De Jonge VN, Elliott M, Orive E. 2002. Causes, historical development, effects and future challenges of a common environmental problem: Eutrophication. Hydrobiologia 475(476), 1–19.

Dorgham MM, Abdel-Aziz NE, El-Deeb, KZ, Okbah MA. 2004. Eutrophication problems in the Western Harbor of Alexandria, Egypt. Oceanologia. 46(1), 25-44.

Elewa AA. 1988. Influence of oxidation reduction potential in the water environment of Aswan High Dam Reservoir Water Res. Development. 4(3), 184-190.

El-Gindy AAH. 1986. Estimation of water exchange and residence time of the water in the Western Harbour of Alexandria (Egypt). Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer M´edit. (CIESM) 30(2).

El-Iskandarani M, Naser S, Okbah M, Jensen A. 2004. Principal component analysis for water quality assessment of the Mediterranean costal modeling and simulation Techniques in Enterprises (AMSE), Modeling C-2004 65(2), 69-83.

Fahmy MA, Beltagi AI, Abbas MM. 1999. Nutrient salts and Chlorophyll-A in the Egyptian Mediterranean coastal waters. MEDCOAST 99-EMECS99 Joint conferences, Land-Ocean Interactions: Managing coastal Ecosystems, 9-13 November, Antalya, Turkey.

FAO. 1975. Manual of methods in aquatic environment research. FAO Fish. Tech. Paper No. 137, 238 p.

Farag MM. 1982. Circulation pattern and hydrographic structure of EL-Mex and Western Harbour Area. M.Sc. Thesis, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Farro NW, Veleva L, Aguilar P. 2009. 215th ECS Meeting- San Francisco, CA, May 24-29, 2009: Mild Steel Corrosion: Corrosion Rates in Atmospheric and Seawater Environments of a Peruvian Port, 645 p.

Grasshoff K. 1976. Methods of seawater analysis, Verlag Chemie Weikeim, New York.

Hamdy AA, El Raey M, Mohamed MAZ, Sawsan MA, Nagwa EAA. 2015. Study of the physico-chemical conditions and evaluation of the changes in eutrophication related problems in El-Mex Bay. African Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology 9(4), 354-364. ISSN: 1996-0786. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJEST.

Hassan MH, Saad NN. 1996. Some studies on the effect of Alexandria Western Harbour on the coastal waters. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. ‘Environmental protection is a must’, NIOF/USPD, Alexandria, 464–472.

Hayat MF, Hermine RZT, Mohamed AO. 2009. Nutrient salts and chlorophyll-a during short term scale in the Eastern Harbor, Alexandria (Egypt). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 35(3), 243-250.

Hermine RZT, Maged SHKG. 2013. Corrosion rate From Abu Qir till El Mex Alexandria Egypt, Global climate change, biodiversity and sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities Conference. 15-18 April, 14 p.

International standard ISO. 9226. 1992. (E) Annex a Chemical Cleaning Procedures for removal of corrosion products.

Mahmoud KHE, El_Wakeel SK, Ahmed ER. 1988. Factor analysis of sediments in the Alexandria Western Harbour, Egypt. Oceanologia Acta, 11(1), 1-11.

Mohamed MD, Nagwa EA, Kamal Z, El-Deeb, Mohamed AO. 2004. Eutrophication problems in the western harbor of Alexandria. , Egypt. Oceanologia. 46(1), 25-44.

Nessim RB, Tadros AB. 1986. Distribution of nutrient salts in the water and pore water of the Western Harbour of Alexandria. Egypt, Bull. Natl. Inst. Oceanography. Fish. (Egypt). 12, 165–174.

Nessim RB, Zaghloul FA. 1991. Nutrients and chlorophyll in the polluted Kait Bey region, Alexandria, pp. 71–80. Proc. Symp. Mar. Chem. In the Arab Region, April 1991, Suez.

Okbah MA, Ibrahim AMA, Gamal MNM. 2013. Environmental monitoring of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates and physicochemical characteristics of seawater in El-Mex Bay (Alexandria, Egypt). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185 (4), 3103-3115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2776-9.

Parsons TR, Maita, Lalli CM. 1984. A manual of Chemistry and Biological Methods for seawater analysis. Fish, Res. Bd. Canada Bull. 311 P.

Robert B. 2005. Corrosion Tests and Standards Manual: Environmental effects on corrosion, Chapter 48- steels, 559, Chapter 53- steels. 604. Copyright © 2005 by ASTM International. www.astm.org

Rossum JR, Villarruz PA. 1961. Suggested methods for turbidimetric determination of sulphate in seawater. JAWWA, 53-873.

Saad MAH, Hemeda EIM. 1991. Influence of pollution on the levels of dissolved oxygen, organic matter and sulphate in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Rev. Int. Oc´eanogr. M´ed. 101/104, 20–26.

Saad MAH, Hemeda EIM. 1992a. Effect of pollution on the Western Harbour of Alexandria. I. Environmental characteristics, Sci. Tot. Environ, Suppl. 1992, 737–753.

Saad MAH, Hemeda EIM. 1992b. Effect of pollution on the Western Harbour of Alexandria. II. Nutrient salts, Sci. Tot. Environ, Suppl. 1992, 755– 772.

Saad MAH, Beltagy AI, Fahmy MA, Abdel-Moati MA, Mahmoud WM. 2000. Total particulate matter and lead speciation in the heavily polluted Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt. Proc. 11th Ann. Int. Conf. ‘Heavy metals environment’, Contr. 1373, Michigan Univ., (CD–Rom).

Saad MAH, Beltagy AI, Abdel-Moati MA, Fahmy MA, Mahmoud WM. 2001. Environmental problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, a Mediterranean basin under stress. Proc. 5th Int. MEDCOAST Conf., Hamammet, Tunisia, 451–462.

Saad MAH, Beltagy AI, Fahmy MA, Mahmoud WM. 2002. Lead speciation in the sediments of the heavily polluted Western Harbour of Alexandria. Proceeding International Conference Protect. Restore. Environ. 6, 427–434.

Saad MAH, Beltagy AI, Mahmoud WM. 2003. Total dissolved and particulate lead in the Western harbour of Alexandria, a Mediterranean basin under stress. Special Issue Marine Pollution Bulletin 47, 52–58.

Saleh AAl-Fozan, Anees UM. 2005. Effect of Seawater level on corrosion behavior of different alloys. International Desalination Association (IDA) World Congress Conference, Singapore, 11 p.

Shaltout NA, Abd-El-Khalek DE. 2014. Assessment of Seawater Quality of El-Dekhaila Harbor, Alexandria, Egypt. Asian Journal of Advanced Basic Sciences 3(1), 206-216. ISSN (Online): 2347 – 4114. http://www.ajabs.org.

Shriadah MMA, Tayel FTR. 1992. Environmental condition of the Western Harbour of Alexandria. I. Physico-chemical characteristics, Egypt. Bulletin High Institute of Public Health (Alexandria Univ.) 22 (1), 213–230.

Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens, 1990. 140 p.

Subir P. 2012. Modeling to Study the Effect of Environmental Parameters on Corrosion of Mild Steel in Seawater Using Neural Network. ISRN Metallurgy, 2012, Article ID 487351, 6 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/4873.51

Voluntary Estuary Monitoring Manual, Chapter 11: pH and Alkalinity 2006. A Methods Manual, Second Edition, EPA-842-B-06-003. The full document be downloaded from: http://www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/monitor/

Wooster WS, Lee AJ, Dietrich G. 1969. Redefinition of Salinity. Limnol. And Oceanogr. 14(3), 437-38.

Yuantai Ma, Ying Li, Fuhui W. 2009. Corrosion of low carbon steel in atmospheric environments of different chloride content. Corrosion Science. 51, 997-1006.

Zaghloul FA. 1994. Phytoplankton dynamics in the Western Harbour of Alexandria. Proceeding International Conference ‘Future aquatic resources in Arab Region’, 205–214.

Zaghloul FA. 1996. Further studies on the assessment of eutrophication in Alexandria harbours Egypt, Bulletin Faculty of Science (Alexandria Univ.). 36(1), 281–294.

SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT

Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background