Physicochemical properties and heavy metal content of selected water sources in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State- Nigeria

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2012
Views (329) Download (23)

Physicochemical properties and heavy metal content of selected water sources in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State- Nigeria

Emmanuel Iroha Akubugwo, Victor Chibueze Ude, Friday Obinwa Uhuegbu, Osita Ugbogu
J. Bio. Env. Sci.2( 2), 21-27, February 2012.
Certificate: JBES 2012 [Generate Certificate]


The physicochemical properties and heavy metal content of selected water sources within two kilometers from a quarry site in Ishiagu was investigated using standard methods. Biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and nitrate were above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits for drinking water at the quarry site and one kilometer from the quarry site. Total hardness, chloride and fluoride were above the WHO permissible limits at the quarry site. A higher concentration above WHO specification, were also observed in phosphate and conductivity in all the samples. The metals (Aluminum, Cadmium, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Calcium and Magnesium) occurred above WHO permissible limits for drinking water in all the samples but, lead was not detected in the sample collected two kilometers away from the quarry site. Sodium, potassium, manganese and copper were above the WHO permissible limits in samples collected from the quarry site. These results indicate that the water sources were contaminated and unfit for human consumption. Communities within the area require alternative sources of potable water for drinking and domestic purposes.


Abulude FO, Obidiran GO, Orungbemi S. 2007. Determination of Physicochemical parameter and trace metal contents of drinking water samples in Akure Nigeria. Electronic Journal of Environmental Agricultural and Food Chemistry 6, 2297 – 2303.

Adekunle IM, Adetunji MT, Gbadebo AM, Banjoko OB 2007. Assessment of Groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in Southwest Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 4, 307 – 318.

Adepelumi A, Ako B, Ajayi IT. 2001. Groundwater contamination in basement – complex area of Ile-Ife, Southwest. Nigeria. A case study using the electrical resistivity of geographical method. Hydrogeology Journal 9, 611 – 622.

Agbafor KN, Akubugwo IE, Ugbogu AE. 2007. Toxicological Evaluation of Okposi and Uburu Salt Lakes, Nigeria. International Journal of Biotechnology And Allied Sciences 2, 186 – 189.

Agbaire PO, Obi CG. 2009. Seasonal variations of some physicochemical properties of River Ethiope water in Abraka Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 13, 55.

Akan JC, Abdulraham FI, Dimari GA, Ogugbuaja VO. 2008. Physicochemical determination of pollutants in wastewater and vegetable samples along the Jakava wastewater channelin Kano metropolis Kano State, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research 23, 122-133.

Akubugwo EI, Ofoegbu CI, Ukwuoma CU. 2007. Physicochemical Studies on Uburu Salt Lake Ebonyi State Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10, 3170-3174.

Akujieze CN, Coker SJ, Oteze GE. 2003. Groundwater in Nigeria – a millennium experience – distribution, practice, problems and solution. Hydrogeology Journal 1, 259 – 274.

Amadi BA, Chikezie PC,  Okeoma  HC. 2006. Physicochemical characteristics of Nworie River and its Effect on liver function of rats. Journal of Nigerian Environmental Society 3, 183 – 187

APHA 1998. Standard methods of Examination of water and wastewater, 20th Eds .APHA Washington DC.

Baptist  GO.  1980.  Water  characterization-In proceedings of the first National Conference on water pollution control in foods, University of Ibadan- Nigeria.

Burkart MR, Kolpin DW. 1993. Hydrologic and Land-use factors associated with herbicides and nitrate in near surface aquifer. Journal of Environmental Quality 22, 646 – 654.

Goel PK, Gopal B, Trivedy RK. 1980. Impact of sewage on freshwater ecosystem I. General features of water bodies and sewage. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Science 6, 83-86.

Ikem A, Osibanjo O, SridhaR MKC, Sobande A. 2002. Evaluation of groundwater quality characteristics near two wastes sites in Ibadan and Lagos, Nigeria. Water Air and Soil Pollution 14, 307 – 333.

Lamikanra A. 1999. Essential Microbiology for students and practitioner of pharmacy, medicine and microbiology 2nd eds. Amkra Books Lagos, p. 406.

LAWMA 2000. Management of landfill wastes. The journey so far L.E.P.A. Lagos State Waste Management Authority.

Oladiji AT, Adeyemi O, Abiola OO. 2004. Toxicological evaluation of the surface water of Amilegbe River using rats. Biokemistri 16, 94-101.

Osibanjo O, Adie GU. 2007. Impact of effluent from Bodija Abattoir on the physicochemical parameters of Oshunkaya stream in Ibadan city, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 6, 1806 – 1811.

Raji BA, Alagbe, SA. 1997. Hydrochemical faces in parts of the Nigeria basement complex. Environmental Geology 29, 46-49.

Sharma JD, Sharma MK, Agrawal P. 2004. Effect of fluoride contaminated drinking water in Albino Rats. Rattus norvegicus. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences 18, 37 – 46.