Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants in a local community in the Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 09/02/2023
Views (905) Download (116)

Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants in a local community in the Philippines

Maeryll Krisna A. Abastillas, Thessa Joy R. Bagolcol, Pamela B. Buro, Mark Igor B. Gayoba, Joylyn C. Segurada, Edda Brenda S. Yerro, Mary Lou C. Arabaca, James L. Torres, Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang
Int. J. Biosci.22( 2), 171-182, February 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


A survey of medicinal plants in a local community in Guimbal, Iloilo, Philippines identified ten plant species namely, hagonoy (Chromolaena odorata), pitogo (Cycas rumphii), adgao (Premna odorata), labnog (Ficus leucantatoma), talus (Homalomena rubescens), sinaw-sinaw (Peperomia pellucida), palochina (Senna alata), badyang (Alocasia macrorrhizos); bagacay (Bambusa vulgaris) and karupi (Alpinia sp). From these plants, two least-studied medicinal plants, B. vulgaris and Alpinia sp. were determined of their phytochemical composition and antibacterial properties following standard procedures. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts were prepared from these plants and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against two Gram-negative bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi, and a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus albus were determined using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). Phytochemical analyses of B. vulgaris and Alpinia sp., indicated the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, flavonoids and phenols and tannins. All extracts of the two medicinal plants inhibited the growth of A. hydrophila at a concentration of 0.5 g ml -1. The MBC and MIC for B. vulgaris aqueous extract and Alpinia sp. ethanolic extract against V. harveyi showed inhibition at 0.5g ml -1 except for the MIC of B. vulgaris aqueous extract which was at 0.25 g ml -1. There was no inhibition of B. albus from all extracts of both medicinal plants. These two medicinal plants can be further explored as potential sources of ingredients for the development of novel antibacterial drugs particularly in inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria.


Balamurugan V, Velurajan S, Palanisamy A. 2019. Phytochemical analysis of Alpinia officinarum and to test its anti -oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti -arthritic activity. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education 5, 1125-1140.

Carag H, Buot Jr IE. 2017. A checklist of the orders and families of medicinal plants in the Philippines. Sylvatrop, the Technical Journal of Philippine Ecosystems and Natural Resources 27(1&2), 49-9.

Chouni A, Paul S. 2018. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Alpinia galanga. Pharmacognosy Journal 10(1), 09-15.

Conchou L, Cabioch L, Rodriguez LJV, Kjellberg F. 2014. Daily rhythm of mutualistic pollinator activity and scent emission in Ficus septica: ecological differentiation between co-occurring pollinators and potential consequences for chemical communication and facilitation of host speciation. PloS ONE 9(8), e103581.

Cordero C, Alejandro GJ. 2021. Medicinal plants used by the indigenous Ati tribe in Tobias Fornier, Antique, Philippines. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity 22(2).

Fitri A, Asra R, Rivai H. 2020. Overview of the traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological uses of gold bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris). World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 9(8), 21.

Gonelimali FD, Lin J, Miao W, Xuan J, Charles F, Chen M, Hatab SR. 2018. Antimicrobial properties and mechanism of action of some plant extracts against food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Frontiers in Microbiology 9, 1639.

Haryanti S, Rahmawati N, Sholikhah I, Widiyastuti Y. 2021. Ficus septica, an ecosystem keystone species induced ROS-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Earth Environmental Science 905(1), 012101.

Hill KD. 1994. The Cycas rumphii complex (Cycadaceae) in New Guinea and the western Pacific. Australian Systematic Botany 7(6), 543-567.

Hussain W, Badshah L, Ullah M. 2018. Quantitative study of medicinal plants used by the communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range, Northern Pakistani-Afghan borders. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 14(1), 1-18.

Jangad AMA, Licardo ADMB. 2018. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of lagnob (Ficus septica Burm. F. 1768) fruit extract on albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Doctoral dissertation, Thesis. University of San Carlos-Josef Baumgartner Learning Resource Center. Talamaban, Cebu City, Philipines.

Khalid S, Shahzad A, Basharat N, Abubakar M, Anwar P. 2018. Phytochemical screening and analysis of selected medicinal plants in Gujrat. Journal of Phytochemistry and Biochemistry 2(1), 1-3.

Khan AV, Ahmed QU, Khan AA, Shukla I. 2011. Antibacterial activity of Cycas rumphii Miq. leaves extracts against some tropical human pathogenic bacteria. Research Journal of Microbiology 6(10), 761.

Lim TK. 2015. Alocasia macrorrhizos. Edible Medicinal and Non Medicinal Plants: Volume 9, Modified Stems, Roots, Bulbs. Springer, London. 429-442 p.

Lirio SB, Macabeo AP, Paragas EM, Knorn M, Kohls P, Franzblau SG, Wang Y,  Aguinaldo MA. 2014. Antitubercular constituents from Premna odorata Blanco. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 154 (2), 471-474.

Mollejon B, Mollejon C. 2019. Anti-microbial activities and phytochemical screening of the Premna odorata Blanco alagaw leaf extract. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development 3, 343-345.

Nuneza O, Rodriquez B, Nsaid JG. 2021. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the Mamanwa tribe of Surigao del Norte and Agusan del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines. Biodiversitas 22(6).

Ogu GI, Madagwu EC, Eboh OJ. 2011. Antibacterial activities of three medicinal plants against some gastro-intestinal microorganisms. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences 7(3), 248-256.

Oladeji O. 2016. The characteristics and roles of medicinal plants: some important medicinal plants in Nigeria. Natural Products: An Indian Journal 12(3), 102.

Oladeji O, Adelowo F, Oluyori A, Bankole D. 2020. Ethnobotanical Description and Biological Activities of Senna alata. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020, 2580259.

Ooi DJ, Iqbal S, Ismail M. 2012. Proximate composition, nutritional attributes and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air) grown in Malaysia. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) 17(9), 11139–11145.

Oonmetta-aree J, Suzuki T, Gasaluck P, Eumkeb G. 2006. Antimicrobial properties and action of galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn.) on Staphylococcus aureus. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Technologies-Food Science and Technology 39(10), 1214-1220.

Owolabi M, Lajide L. 2015. Preliminary phytochemical screening and anti-microbial activity of crude extracts of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Ex J.C. Wendl. (Poaceae) from south-western Nigeria. American Journal of Essential Oils and Products 3 (1), 42-45.

Rini C, Rohmah J, Widyaningrum L. 2018. The antibacterial activity test galanga (Alpinia galangal) on the growth of bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 420, 012142.

Sirinthipaporn A, Jiraungkoorskul W. 2017. Wound healing property review of Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata. Pharmacognosy Reviews 11 (21), 35–38.

Shaikh J, Patil M. 2020. Qualitative tests for preliminary phytochemical screening: an overview. International Journal of Chemical Study 8(2), 603-608.

Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. 2013. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines 10(5), 210–229.

Talib WH, Mahasneh AM. 2010. Anti-microbial, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Jordanian plants used in traditional medicine. Molecules 15(3), 1811-1824.

Tanaka A, Zhu Q, Tan H, Horiba H, Ohnuki K, Mori Y, Yamauchi R, Ishikawa H, Iwamoto A, Kawahara H, Shimizu K. 2014. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Molecules 19(6), 8238–8260.

Van HT, Nguyen QP, Tran GB, Huynh NTA. 2021. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of Homalomena vietnamensis bogner & vd nguyen (Araceae). Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 2021, 201-204.

Vijayaraghavan K, Rajkumar J, Bukhari SN, AlSayed B, Seyed MA. 2017. Chromolaena odorata: a neglected weed with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities (Review). Molecular Medicine Reports 15, 1007-1016.

Voravuthikunchai SP, Phongpaichit S, Subhadhirasakul S. 2005. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of medicinal plants widely used among AIDS patients in Thailand. Pharmaceutical Biology 43(8), 701-706.

Vital P, Velasco R, Demigillo J, Rivera W. 2010. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Ficus septica Burm and Sterculia foetida L. leaf extracts. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4(1), 58-63.

Youssef FS, Ovidi E, Musayeib NMA, Ashour ML. 2021.  Morphology, anatomy and secondary metabolites investigations of Premna odorata Blanco and evaluation of its anti-tuberculosis activity using in vitro and in silico studies. Plants 10(9), 1953.

Zheng X, Lin S, Fu H, Wan Y, Ding Y. 2020. The bamboo flowering cycle sheds light on flowering diversity. Frontiers in Plant Sciences 11, 381.

Zhiang K, Sari R, Apridamayanti P. 2019. Minimum inhibitory concentration etermination of Bambusa vulgaris leaves extract against skin and digestive diseases bacteria. Kartika: Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi 7(1), 1-5.