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Phytoremediation of nickel from the effluents of selected ghee industries of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Muhammad Saleem Khan, Muhammad Anwar Sajad, Wisal Muhammad Khan, Sajjad Ali, Hazrat Ali, Abdul Naeem

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(3), 174-182, March 2015

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Abstract

Nickel is a known haemotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, genotoxic, nephrotoxic, reproductive toxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic and carcinogenic agent. To convert vegetable edible oil into ghee, nickel is used as a catalyst in hydrogenation process. The effluents flowing out from ghee industries contain nickel which contaminate environment. In the present study the effluent water, drains sediment and the plants which were growing along the drains carrying effluents of five ghee industries were analyzed. The concentration of Ni in mg/L in the ghee industries was in the order: Utman Ghee Industry, Gadoon, KPK (0.656) >Gulab Banaspathi, Jamroad Road, Peshawar (0.435) >Saqib Banaspathi, Jamroad Road, Peshawar (0.263) >TajPlus Ghee Industry, Skhakot, KPK (0.249) >Sher Banaspathi, Dargai, KPK (0.047). The highest concentration of nickel was present in the effluent water of Utman Ghee Industry, Gadoon, KPK. The concentration of Ni (mg/kg) in the drains carrying effluents of each industry was in the order: Taj Plus Ghee Industry, Skhakot, KPK (179.06) >Gulab Banaspathi, Jamroad Road, Peshawar (176.93) >Saqib Banaspathi, Jamroad Road, Peshawar (78.89) >Sher Banaspathi, Dargai, KPK (56.62) >Utman Ghee Industry, Gadoon, KPK (24. 38). The phytoextraction capacity of seventeen plants was studied which were growing along the drains carrying effluents of these industries. The calculation of bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) of the plants showed that six plants ((Rumex nepalensis, Pimpinella saxifrage, Cyperus rotundus, Conyza Canadensis, Rumex hastatus and Saccharum spontaneum) among these studied plants have feasibility for the phytoextraction of Ni metal.

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Phytoremediation of nickel from the effluents of selected ghee industries of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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