Phytoremediation potential of Jatropha curcas and Pennisetum clandestinum grown in polluted soil with and without coal fly ash: a case of BCL Cu/Ni mine, Selibe-Phikwe, Botswana

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Phytoremediation potential of Jatropha curcas and Pennisetum clandestinum grown in polluted soil with and without coal fly ash: a case of BCL Cu/Ni mine, Selibe-Phikwe, Botswana

Raviro Vurayai, Bonang Nkoane, Baleseng Moseki, Padmaja Chaturvedi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.10( 5), 193-206, May 2017.
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This study was conducted to identify plants which can be used for phytoremediation of the soils east and west of BCL Cu/Ni mine smelter [2.5 km east, 2.5 km west, 20 km west and 55 km west (control) of mine smelter]. Two ascensions of Jatropha curcas (J09 and J05) and Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) were raised in pots in the greenhouse in soil with and without coal fly ash. All plants failed to grow in soil from 2.5 km west of mine smelter without ash and addition of ash increased soil pH and enabled plants to survive. All species accumulated more metals when grown in soil without ash as compared to soil with ash thus translocation and bioaccumulation factors were higher in plants grown in soil without ash compared to soil with ash. Kikuyu was able to hyper accumulate Cu at 55 km west without ash while J05 and J09 failed to hyper accumulate any metal. Performance of species according to bioaccumulation factor followed the order Kikuyu> J05> J09. Heavy metal accumulation, translocation factor and bioaccumulation factor of heavy metals followed the order 55 km west> 2.5 km east> 20 km west of mine smelter. Jatropha curcas and Pennisetum clandestinum failed to hyper accumulate heavy metals so they are not viable candidates for the phytoextraction treatment of soils around the Selebi-Phikwe Cu/Ni mine. Jatropha curcas and Pennisetum clandestinum can be used for re-vegetation provided soil pH is increased and the heavy metal-contaminated soils are stabilized by coal fly ash addition.


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