Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | December 1, 2012

| Download

Plant species recovery and natural tree regeneration on skid trails in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran

Farzam Tavankar

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.2(12), 16-23, December 2012


JBES 2012 [Generate Certificate]


In the ground based logging operation construction of skid trails are need to transport logs from felling areas to road side landings. In this research plant species recovery rate and natural tree regeneration on the skid trails with different time of construction (1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were investigated in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran. Plant recovery rate including coverage, height, diversity and species importance value were measured and noted on each skid trail by systematic sample plots and were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan test. Results showed plant coverage, number of species and plant height on the skid trails were increased by increasing of skid trails construction ages. After 10 years from logging operation only 2 species of tree regeneration (Alnus subcordata and Acer velutinum) were established on the skid trails. Also, after 30 years from skid trailconstruction and logging operation only 7 species of tree regeneration were established on the skid trails that were seedling and small sapling stages. Sambacus ebulus had the most species importance value on the skid trails with 1 and 10 years old, whereas, on the skid trails with 20 and 30 years old Rubus caesus had the most species importance value. Post harvest operations are necessary to limit soil erosion and conservation plant species diversity in these forests.


Copyright © 2012
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Plant species recovery and natural tree regeneration on skid trails in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran

Akbarimehr, M. Naghdi, R. 2012. Reducing erosion from forest roads and skid trails by management practices. J. For. Sci. 58(4), 165-169.

Clayton JL. 1990. Soil disturbance resulting from skidding logs on granitic soils in central Idaho. USDA Forest Service, Research paper 436.

Cochrane MA, Schultze MD. 1999. Fire as a recurrent event in tropical forests of the eastern Amazon: effects on forest structure, biomass and species composition. Biotropica 31(1), 2–16.

Croke J, Hairsine P, Fogarty P. 2001. Soil recovery from track construction and harvesting changes in surface infiltration, erosion and delivery rates with time. For. Ecol. Manage. 143, 3–12.

Curran MP, Miller RE, Howes SW, Maynard DG, Terry TA, Heninger RL, Niemann T, van Rees K, Powers RF, Schoenholtz SH. 2005. Progress towards more uniform assessment and reporting of soil disturbance for operations, research, and sustainability protocols. For. Ecol. Manage. 220, 17-30.

Elliot WJ, Hall DE. 1997. Water erosion prediction (WEPP) forest applications. General Technical Report INT-GTR-365. Moscow, ID: Intermountain Research Station. p. 11.

Forman RTT. 2000. Estimate of the area affected ecologically by the road system in the United States. Conserv. Biol. 14, 31-35.

Fredericksen TS, Mostacedo B. 2000. Regeneration of sawtimber species following selective logging in a Bolivian tropical forest. For. Ecol. Manage. 131, 47–55.

Ganesh T, Ganesan R, M. Devy MS, Davidar P, Bawa K. 1996. Assessment of Plant biodiversity at a mid elevation evergreen forest of Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Western Ghats, India. Current Science 71, 379-392.

Gomez A, Powers RF, Singer MJ, Horwath WR. 2002. Soil compaction  effects on growth  of young ponderosa pine following litter removal in California’s Sierra Nevada. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 1334-1343.

Grace JM III, Clinton BD. 2007. Protecting soil and water in forest road management. Am. Soc. Agri. Bio. Eng. 50, 1579–1584.

Grigal DF. 2000. Effects of extensive forest management on soil productivity. For. Ecol. Manage. 138:167-185.

Heninger R, Scott W, Dobkowski A, Miller RE, Anderson H, Duke S. 2002. Soil disturbance and ten year growth response of coast Douglas-fir on non tilled and tilled skid trails in the Oregon Cascades. Can. J. For. Res. 32, 233-246.

Krebs JC. 1998. Ecological Methodology. Addison Wesley Longman Inc., p. 620.

Lindenmayer DB, Margules CR, Botkin DB. 2000. Indicators of biodiversity for ecologically sustainable forest management. Conservation Biology 14(4), 941-950.

Lotfalian M, Bahmani H. 2011. Effects of ground based skidding system on soil compaction and herbaceous species in a Hyrcanian forest. Eur. J. Sci. Res. 61(4), 601-606.

Miller RE, Scott W, Hazard J. 1996. Soil compaction and conifer growth after tractor yarding at three coastal Washington locations. Can. J. For. Res. 26, 225-236.

Miller RE, McIver JD, Howes SW, Gaeuman WB. 2010. Assessment of soil disturbance in forests of the interior Colombia river Basin: A critique. USDA, Forest Service.

Noss RF, Cooperrider AY. 1994. Saving nature`s legacy: protecting and restoring biodiversity. Island Press, Covelo, California.

Pinard MA, Barker MG, Tay J. 2000. Soil disturbance and post-logging forest recovery on bulldozer paths in Sabah, Malaysia. For. Ecol. Manage. 130, 213-225.

Pinard M, Howlett B, Davidson D. 1996. Site conditions limit pioneer tree establishment after logging of dipterocarp forests in Sabah, Malaysia. Biotropica, 28, 2-12.

Powers RF, Scott DA, Sanchez FG, Voldseth RA, Page-Dumroese D, Elioff JD, Stone DM. 2005. The North American long- term soil productivity experiment: Findings from the first decade of research. For. Ecol. Manage. 220, 31-50.

Pretzsch H. 2009. Forest dynamics, growth and yield. Springer publications, p. 664.

Shannon CZ, Wiener W. 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana.

Putz FE. 1994. Approaches to sustainable forest management. CIFOR working paper No. 4.

Robichaud, PR, Elliot WJ, Pierson FB, Hall DE, Moffet CA, Ashmun LE. 2007. Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) user manual (version 2006.01.18). Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRSGTR- 188. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountatin Research Station. p. 24.

Shannon CZ, Wiener W. 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana.

Tavankar F, Majnounian B, Bonyad AE. 2009. Logging damages on forest regeneration and soil compaction using ground based system (Case study: Asalem Forest area, Guilan). J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Natur. Resour. 13, 449-457.

Troeh, FR, Hobbs JA, Donahue RL. 1999. Soil and    Water    Conservation:    Productivity    and Environmental  Protection,  3rd  Edition.  Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. P. 610.

Williamson  JR,  Neilsen  WA.  2000.   The influence of forest site on rate and extent of soil compaction  and  profile  disturbance  of  skid  trails during ground based harvesting. Can. J. For. Res. 30, 1196-1205.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background