Point source effluents and its effect on the microbiological assessment of its effluent-receiving Brackish water

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/10/2017
Views (209) Download (8)

Point source effluents and its effect on the microbiological assessment of its effluent-receiving Brackish water

Mark John T. Gabule, Alma Negre Abug
J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 4), 220-228, October 2017.
Certificate: JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Two identified point sources of effluents; and the water-effluent receiving brackishwater of Bulua, Cagayan de Oro City Philippines were assessed during low tide and high tide. In-situ parameters were done at the sampling sites and collected algal samples were brought to the laboratory for phytoplankton density and identification. Majority of the effluent parameters, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS) for the two samplings sites; total suspended solid (TSS) & dissolved oxygen (DO) of the market effluent exceeded the prescribed DENR allowable values. The condition of the brackishwater was supported by its water quality variables that exceeded the tolerable limits. Microbiological examination recorded a high level of total coliform count at both tempo-spatial variations and has exceeded the water-effluent quality standards. The phytoplankton density varies significantly in terms of sampling period and the sampling areas. The highest recorded cell density was observed during high tide for both sampling areas. Blue-green algae obtained the highest planktonic cell density with reference to temporal variations and the presence of Oscillatoria sp., a well-documented bloom-forming species, with Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp., which are pollution-sensitive species were identified in the area. A positive correlation coefficient, (r) of 0.875 were identified between phytoplankton density and the nitrates & phosphates; and r of 0.615 between phytoplankton density and the amount of lead (Pb). Regression Analysis significantly identified phytoplankton density in the brackishwater as caused by the physico-chemical parameters; nitrates (p£.01), phosphates (p£.05), lead (p£.05) and salinity (p£.01).


Bellinger E, Sigle D. 2010. Freshwater Algae Identification Use as Bioindicator. John Wiley-Blackwell Publication. Wiley & Sons ltd.

U.S. EPA. 2002. Methods for Evaluating Wetland Condition: Using Algae Assess Environmental Conditions in Wetlands. Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA-822-R-02-021.

Davies OA, Ugwumba OA. 2013. Tidal Influence on Nutrient Status and Phytoplankton Population of Okpoka Creek, Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria. Journal of Marine Biology Vol. 2013.

Bruun K. 2012. Algae can function as indicator of water pollution Nostoca algae Laboratory, Washington State Lake Protection Association. Accessed at www.walpa.org. On February 26, 2014.

Chorus I, Bartram J. 1990. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public Health Consequences, monitoring and management. St Edmundsbury Press, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk London

Canencia OP, Ascaňo CP, Lituaňas C, Ansigbat VV. 2008. A Comprehensive Analysis on the Dynamics of Biodiversity and Bitan-ag Creek Watershed Interactions: Ecosystem Approach for Rehabilitation. IMPACT-MUST Journal.

Krumme S, Liang M. 2004. Tidal-induced Changes in a Copepod-Dominated Zooplankton Community in a Microbial Mangrove Channel in Northern Brazil, Zoological Studies, vol. 43, no.2 pp.404-414.

DAO. 2008. DENR Administrative Order 2008 – XX: Water Quality Guidelines and General Effluent Standards. Revising DAO 34 and 35, Series of 1990.

Palmer (Advisor). Summer M. 2012. Scientific analysis of the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Amendments of Act of 2011. Workshop in Applied Earth systems Management MPA IN Environmental Science and Policy, School of International and Public Affairs – The Earth Institute Columbia University.

Kudela RM. 2015. Harmful algal Blooms. A Scientific Summary for Policy Makers. IOC/UNESCO, Paris (IOC/INF-1320).