Pollen fertility in wild × cultivated F1 hybrid of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2015
Views (183) Download (2)

Pollen fertility in wild × cultivated F1 hybrid of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

Eric B. Kouam, Remy S. Pasquet, Mathieu Ndomou
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.7( 5), 43-50, November 2015.
Certificate: IJAAR 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Hybridization is progressively more recognized as an important process in the evolution of plant populations and species. In order to produce F1  hybrid plants, three subspecies of wild cowpea namely  ssp. spontanea, ssp. stenophylla and ssp. tenius were crossed with the cultivated cowpea subspecies namely ssp. unguiculata (524B). The resulting F1  hybrids were evaluated for pollen fertility, determined from more than 2000 pollen grains. Pollen fecundity in hybrid groups (74.45 ± 1.54) was significantly lower (t = 9.987, df= 51; p < 0.0001) compared to those of parent groups (95.27 ± 0.29). Between parents groups, one-way analysis of variance test at p < 0.050  showed no significant difference in Pollen fertility (F = 2.450; p = 0.093) while significant difference in pollen fecundity was found between hybrid groups (F  = 8.063  ; p < 0.010 ). spontanea (♀) × (♂) 524B F1 hybrid produced significantly more fertile pollens compared to  tenius  (♀) × (♂) 524B and stenophylla (♀) × (♂)  524B F1  hybrids. This indicates that with the cultivated cowpea (524B), reproductive barrier are significantly more pronounced with wild forms ssp. stenophyllla and ssp. tenius compared to ssp. spontanea. ssp. spontanea  is therefore the wild cowpea subspecies more closed to the cultivated cowpea (ssp. unguiculata  ) compared to  ssp. tenius  and  ssp. stenohylla. Implications of these results in the  light of the development of a CMS (Cytoplasmic Male Sterile) plant in hybrid cowpea seed technology are discussed.


Abebrese SO, Akromah R, Dartey PKA. 2011. Crossability of selected progeny from interspecific crosses between Orysa sativa and Oryza glaberrima (NERICAs). African journal of Agricultural Research 6, 79-83.

Akaffou DS, Konate I, Sié RS, Poncet V, Zoro-Bi IA, Keli J, Legnate H, De-Kochko A, Hamon S, Hamon P. 2014. Flowering phenology and yield-related traits in an interspecific cross between Coffea pseudozanguebariae Bridson and Coffea canephora Pierre. Australian journal of crop sciences 8, 1272-1280.

Alexander MP. 1969. Differential staining of aborted and non-aborted pollen. Stain Technology 11, 117-123.

Aliyu B. 2005. Crossability of Vigna rhomboidea Burtt. Davy with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52, 447-453.

Asghari I. 2000. Estimation of Pollen Viability of Metsulfuron Treated Dyers Woad (Isatis tinctoria) for Herbicide Efficacy Evaluation. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2, 85-93.

Ba FS, Pasquet RS, Gepts P. 2004. Genetic diversity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] as revealed by RAPD markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51, 539-550.

Bures P, Smarda P, Rotreklova O, Oberreiter M, Buresova M, Konecny J, Knoll A, Fajmon K, Smerda J. 2010. Pollen viability and natural hybridization of Central European species of Cirsium. Preslia 82, 391–422.

Burgess KS, Husband BC. 2004. Maternal and paternal contributions to the fitness of hybrids between red and white Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae). American Journal of Botany 91, 1802-1808.

Coulibaly S,  Pasquet  RS,  Papa  R, Gepts P. 2002. AFLP analysis of the phenetic organization and genetic diversity of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. reveals extensive gene flow between wild and domesticated types. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104, 358-366.

De-Paula CMP, Techio VH, Benites FRG, Sobrinho FS. 2014. Intra-inflorescence pollen viability in accessions of Brachiaria ruziziensis. Acta Scientiarum 36, 209-213.

Ellstrand NC, Holfman CA. 1990. Hybridization as an avenue of escape for engineered genes. Bioscience 40, 438-442.

Falusi OA, Salako EA, Ishaq MN. 2001. Interspecific Hybridization between Sesamum indicum L. and Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl. Tropicultura 19, 127-130.

Hauser TP, Shaw RG, Ostergard H. 1998. Fitness of F1 hybrids between weedy Brassica rapa and oilseed rape (Brassica napus).Heredity 81, 429-435.

Hughes CE, Govindarajulu R, Robertson A, Filer DL, Harris SA, Bailey CD. 2007. Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 14389-14394.

Kareem I, Amusa TO, Adekola OF, Olaoye OO. 2013. Effects of NPK Fertilizer Application on the Growth and Seed Yield of Cowpea in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development 12, 44-52.

Key S, Ma JKC, Drake PMW. 2008. Genetically modified plants and human health. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 101, 290–298.

Kouadio D, Echikh N, Toussaint A, Pasquet RS, Baudoin JP. 2007. Organisation du pool génique de Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Croisements entre les formes sauvages et cultivées du niébé. Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement 11, 47–57.

Kouam EB, Pasquet RS, Muluvi GM. 2012. Temporal variation of allele frequencies in a natural population of wild Vigna unguiculata. Plant Biosystems 146, 394-401.

Lelou B, Diatewa M, Damme VP. 2011. A study of intraspecific hybrid lines derived from the reciprocal crosses between wild accessions and cultivated cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). African Journal of Plant Science 5, 337-348.

Leppala J, Savolainen O. 2011. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic interactions reduce male fertility in hybrids of arabidopsis lyrata subspecies. Evolution 65, 2959–2972.

Lewis  H.  1966.  Speciation  in  flowering  plants. Science 152, 167–172.

Mercado JA, Mar-Trigo M, Reid MS, Valpuesta V, Quesada MA. 1997. Effects of Low Temperature on Pepper Pollen Morphology and Fertility. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 72, 317-326.

Oyelana OA, Ugborogho RE. 2008. Phenotypic variation of F1 and F2 populations from three species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae). African Journal of Biotechnology 7, 2359 -2367.

Pasquet RS. 1999. Genetic relationships among subspecies of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. based on allozyme variation. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 98, 1104-1119.

Pasquet RS. 2000. Allozyme diversity of cultivated cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 101, 211–219.

Pearson HM, Harney PM. 1984. Pollen viability in Rosa. Horticultural Science 19, 710–711.

Prakash CS. 2001. The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution. Plant Physiology 126, 8-15.

Qureshi SJ, Khan MA, Arshad M, Rashid A, Ahmad M. 2009. Pollen fertility (viability) status in asteraceae species of Pakistan.Trakia Journal of Sciences 7, 12-16.

Rieseberg LH, Raymond O, Rosenthal DM, Lai Z, Livingstone K, Nakazato T, Durphy JL, Schwarzbach AE, Donovan LA, Lexer C. 2003. Major ecological transitions in wild sunflowers facilitated by hybridization. Science 301, 1211–1216.

Singh BB, Chambliss OL, Sharma B. 1997. Recent advance research in cowpea breeding. In: Singh BB, Mohan RDR, Dashiell KE, Jackai LEN, Eds. Advances in cowpea research. Copublication of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria and Japan International Research Center for Agriculture Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, p. 30-48.

Song  ZP,  Lu  BR,  Wang  B,  Chen  JK.  2004. Fitness Estimation Through Performance Comparison of F1 Hybrids with their Parental Species Oryza rufipogon and Oryza sativa. Annals of Botany 93, 311- 316.

Springer TL, Taliaferro CM, McNew RW. 1989. Pollen Size and Pollen Viability in Big Bluestem as Related to Spikelet Type. Crop Science 29, 1559-1561.

Stebbins GL. 1958. The inviability, weakness, and sterility of interspecific hybrids. Advances in genetics 9, 147-215.

Sweigart AL, Fishman L, Willis JH. 2006. A Simple Genetic Incompatibility Causes Hybrid Male Sterility in Mimulus. Genetics 172, 2465–2479.

Terzic S, Atlagic J, Pankovic D. 2006. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower. Genetika 38, 159-168.

Ting P, Tu Y, Lin C, Chang H, Chen L, Chang L. 2014. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower. Pakistan Journal of Botany 46, 1437-1444.

Waheed A, Habib Ahmad H, Abbasi FM, Hamid FS, Shah AH, Safi FA, Ali H. 2013. Pollen Sterility in wide crosses derivatives of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Materials and Environmental Science 4, 404-409.

Yang J, Wan JM, Zhai HG, Wang CL, Zhong WG, Zou JS. 2004. Effect of Temperature on Pollen Fertility in Inter-Subspecific Rice Hybrids. Rice Science 11, 195–199.