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Population analysis via fluctuating asymmetry in the wings of Culex quinquefasciatus say from selected breeding sites in Iligan City, Philippines

Solaiman M. Tataro, Sharon Rose M. Tabugo

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.7(5), 109-118, November 2015


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Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) refers to the unequal bilateral sides of an organism. It occurs when an individual is unable to undergo identical development on both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical trait. It measures the sensitivity of development to a broad array of environmental and genetic stresses. In this study, FA was used to measure developmental instability (DI) the inverse of developmental stability of populations of C. quinquefasciatus in (Mahayahay, Tambacan and Tipanoy) Iligan City. Analysis was based on landmark-based Geometric morphometrics (GM) through Procrustes method and makes comparison of FA indices of homologous points and identifies the level of developmental instability. Using landmark based method for shape asymmetry, anatomical landmarks were used and analyzed using Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE) program. Eighteen landmarks were tested for samples for all populations. Procrustes ANOVA results showed variation and highly significant levels of FA for the three populations and no indication of Directional asymmetry (DA). Underlying reasons behind high FA may include stress as experienced by populations (endogenous and exogenous). Significant FA and increase FA present inability of species to buffer stress in its developmental pathways hence, would mean developmental instability and have implications on species fitness, adaptation, quality of individuals and status as a vector. Data obtained on the nature and population status of C. quinquefasciatus may help in establishing tailor-made vector control plan for national programmes in the Philippines.


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Population analysis via fluctuating asymmetry in the wings of Culex quinquefasciatus say from selected breeding sites in Iligan City, Philippines

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