Population dynamic of coconut crab (Birgus latro) in Sayafi Island, North Maluku of Indonesia

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2016
Views (254) Download (17)

Population dynamic of coconut crab (Birgus latro) in Sayafi Island, North Maluku of Indonesia

S.E. Widiyanti, Marsoedi, Sukoso, D. Setyohadi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.8( 6), 151-161, June 2016.
Certificate: JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Katang kanari or coconut crab (Birgus latro) is economical fish resources in North Maluku, Indonesia. Problems arise when coconut crab was widely captured and caused population declining in number and size. However, information of coconut crab population in North Maluku, including Sayafi Island, has not been recorded properly. The study aims were analyzed and described population dynamics of coconut crab in Sayafi Island for better management. Data collection (total catch, thoracic length, body weight, sex and gonad maturity) was conducted in Sayafi Island from February to September 2013. Analysis of population dynamic of coconut crab included growth, recruitment and mortality parameters. Research result showed that estimation of population size was 43, 434 crabs; density was 26 crabs/ha; W = 0.007 ThL3.052; ThLt = 70 (1 – e -0.09(t+0.048)), and dominated by young cohort. Value of Z = 0.704 year -1, M = 0.388 year-1, and F = 0.320 year -1 indicated that crab mortality due to fishing pressure was higher. The highest number of female crab was non ovigerous female with one recruitment pattern during a year. Value of E0.1 = 0.671; E0.5 = 0.339; Emax = 0.821, and ESayafi = 0.455 indicated that exploitation rate of crab has not been optimal. However there was indication of coconut crab population declining in Sayafi Island.


Aiken DE. 1980. Molting and growth. In: Cobb JS, Phillips BF, Ed. The biology and management of lobsters 1, Academic Press, New York, 91-164.

Drew MM, S Harzsch, M Stensmyr, S Erland, BS Hansson. 2010. A review of the biology and ecology of the robber crab, Birgus latro (Linnaeus, 1767) (Anomura: Coenobitidae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 249, 45–67.

Effendi MI. 1979. Method of fisheries biology. Publisher of Yayasan Dewi Sri Foundation. (in Indonesian).

Fletcher WJ. 1993. Coconut crabs. In: Wright A, Hill L, Ed. Nearshore Marine Resources of the South Pacific, University of the South Pacific, FFA, ICOD, Suva, 643–681.

Fletcher WJ, Brown IW, Fielder DR, Obed A. 1991. Moulting and growth characteristics. In: Brown IW, Fielder DR, Ed. The coconut crab: aspects of the biology and ecology Birgus latro in The Republic of Vanuatu, Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Australia, 35 – 60.

Gayanilo FC, Sparre P, Pauly D. 2005. FAO-ICLARM stock assessment tools II, revised version. User Guide. Worldfish Center, Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations.

Hartnoll RG. 1982. Growth. In: Bliss DE, Abele LG, Ed. The biology of Crustacea, 2, embryology, morphology and genetics. Academic Press, New York, 111–196.

Hartnoll RG. 2001. Growth in Crustacea – twenty years on. Hydrobiologia 449, 111–122.

Indonesian Republic Government. 1999. Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999 on Preservation of plants and animals. (in Indonesian).

Indonesian Republic Government. 2004. Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 31 of 2004 on Fisheries. (in Indonesian).

Indonesian Republic Government. 2008. Forestry Minister Regulation No. P.57 / Menhut-II / 2008 on Strategic direction of national species conservation 2008 – 2018. (in Indonesian).

James DJ. 2007. Christmas Island biological monitoring programme: population structure and road mortality in red crabs (Gecarcoidea natalis) and robber crabs (Birgus latro) on Christmas Island. Christmas Island Biodiversity Monitoring Programme Parks, North Australia.

King M. 1995. Fisheries biology, assessment and management. Fishing News Books.

Lindner B. 2004. Impact assessment of research on the biology and management of coconut crabs on Vanuatu. Impact Assessment Series Report No. 29, ACIAR, 22-37.

Murhum MA, Widiyanti SE. 2009. Study of kepiting kenari (Birgus latro) habitat in Gemia Coastal Village, North Patani Subdistrict. Khairun University, Ternate. (in Indonesian).

Pauly D, Binohlan C. 2000. Estimation of life-history key facts. In: Froese R, Pauly D, Ed. FishBase 2000: Concepts, Design and Data Sources. ICLRAM, 167-175.

Pratiwi R. 1989. Coconut crab, Birgus latro (Linnaeus, 1967) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Coenobitidae) and some biological aspect. Oseana XIV(2), 47-53. (in Indonesian).

Reese ES. 1987. Terrestrial environment and ecology of Eniwetok Atoll. In: Devaney DM, Reese ES, Burch BL, Helfrich P, Ed. The natural history of Eniwetok Atoll 1, 187-202.

Sato T, Yoseda K. 2008. Reproductive season and female maturity size of coconut crab Birgus latro on Hatoma Island, Southern Japan. Fisheries Science 74, 1277–1282.

Sato T, Yoseda K. 2009. Prediction timing of mating and egg extrusion in the coconut crab Birgus latro judged from female pleonal expansion. Fish Science 75, 641 – 648.

Sato T, Yoseda K, Abe O, Shibuno T. 2008. Male maturity, number of sperm, and spermatophore size relationships in the coconut crab Birgus latro on Hatoma Island, Southern Japan. Journal of Crustacean Biology 28(4), 663–668.

Sato T, Yoseda K, Abe O, Shibuno T, Y. Takada, Shigeki, Hamasaki K. 2013. Growth of the coconut crab Birgus latro estimated from mark-recapture using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Aquatic Biology 19, 143–152.

Schiller C. 1992. Assessment of the status of the coconut crab Birgus latro on Niue Island with recommendations regarding an appropriate resource management strategy. FAO-South Pacific Aquaculture Development Project Suva, Fiji.

Sparee P, Venema SC. 1998. Introduction of tropical fish stock assessment, Part 1: Manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 306/1, rev. 2, FAO, Rome.

Sugilar H, Park YC, Lee NY, Han DW, Nam KN. 2012. Population dynamics of the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus (Miers, 1876) (Branchyura, Portunidae) from the West Sea of Korea. International Journal of Oceanography and Marine Ecological System 1(2), 36-49.

Sulistiono MM, Kamal NA, Butet, Nugraha T. 2009. Capture and local marketing activities of coconut crab (Birgus latro) in Yoi Island, North Maluku. PSP Buletin 18(2), (in Indonesian).

Thalib A. 2010. Study of coconut crab (Birgus latro) Habitat in Sayafi Island, North Patani Subdistrict of Central Halmahera Regency. Theses, Khairun University, Ternate. (in Indonesian).

Widiyanti SE, Marsoedi, Sukoso, Setyohadi D. 2015. Resource management of coconut crab (Birgus latro) in Liwo Island, North Maluku of Indonesia. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Science 5, 343-351.