Population dynamics and conservation of Suleiman Markhor Capra falconeri jerdoni in Suleiman Mountain Range, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2013
Views (316) Download (52)

Population dynamics and conservation of Suleiman Markhor Capra falconeri jerdoni in Suleiman Mountain Range, Pakistan

Bazmir Khan, MazharIqbal, Salman Khan
J. Bio. Env. Sci.3( 6), 30-37, June 2013.
Certificate: JBES 2013 [Generate Certificate]


Suleiman Markhor Capra falconeri jerdoni is an endangered wild goat according to the IUCN Redlist, 2012. Little information on its existing population and its dynamics is known in the eastern Pakistan–Suleiman Mountain Range in particular– since 1996. Suleiman Mountain Range, an extension of Hindukush Range, hosts the population of Suleiman Markhor. We studied the current status of Suleiman Markhor in the Suleiman Mountain range covering an area of 260 Km². Vintage point count surveys were conducted during rut and lambing, 2011 seasons. We also studied the effect of aspect, slope and elevation (6000 to 9,000 & above) on the occurrence of Markhor. The present study resulted in the finding that the number of markhors, based on actual sighting, has declined significantly as compare to those reported in 1996 by WWF-Pakistan. Anthropogenic activities like hunting; poaching; competition of livestock for grazing and forest depletion were the major causes for brining the markhors’ population near the verge of extinction. A community-based action plan has been suggested for the conservation of this precious resource and its allied biodiversity.


Ali S. 2008. Conservation and Status of Markhor (Capra falconeri) in the Northern Parts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. MS Thesis, University of Montana Missoula, 127.

Arshad M,  Qamer FM, Saleem R, Malik, RN. 2012. Prediction of Kashmir markhor habitat suitability in Chitral Gol National Park, Pakistan. Biodiversity 13(2), 78-87.

Bhatnagar YV, Ahmad R, Kyarong SS, Ranjitsinh MK, Seth CM, Lone IA, Easa PS, Kaul R, Raghunath R. 2009. Endangered markhor Capra falconeri in India: through war and insurgency. Fauna and Flora International, Oryx 43 (3), 407-411.

Burrard G. 1925. Big Game Hunting in the Himalayas and Tibet. London, H.Jenkis.

Frisina MR, Woods C, Woodford M. 1998. Population trend of Suleiman Markhor (Capra felconeri jerdoni) and Afghan Urial (Ovis orientalis Cycloceros) with reference to habitat conditions Torghar Baluchistan Province, Pakistan. A report to the Uisted Satates Fish and Wildlife Services Office of International Affairs and Society for Torghar Environmental Protection (STEP).

GoNWFP and IUCN Pakistan. 2004. Chitral – An Integrated Development Vision (Chitral Conservation Strategy). IUCN-Pakistan and Government of NWFP, Karachi, Pakistan,14-103.

Hussain SK and Iqbal M. 2006. Forest Management and Conservation Plan for Chilghoza Forest, Suleiman Range, District Zhob, Baluchistan. WWF-Pakistan.

Iqbal M. 1999. Chilghoza Forest of Suleiman Mountain Range (state of affairs and proposed strategy). WWF-Pakistan.

IUCN. 2000. Biodiversity Action Plan. http:www httpwww.iucn.pk [accessed on 06 December, 2012].

Jackson R, Hunter DO. 1996. Snow Leopard Survey and Conservation. Handbook. International Snow Leopard Trust. Washington.

Johnson KA. 1998. Status of Suleiman markhor and Afghan urial populations in the Torghar Hills, Balochistan Province, Pakistan. In: S.A. MUFTI, C.A. WOODS and S.A. HASAN, eds. Pakistan. Museum of Natural History and Florida Museum of Natural History, Islamabad, 12 p.

Khan, B. 2006. Markhor Survey in Suleiman Mountain range, District Zhob, Baluchistan. WWF-Pakistan.

Khan MZ, Siddiqui, S. 2011. Studies on Bioecology and Fauna of Hazarganji Chiltan National park and Development of Ecotourism in Protected Areas. Canadian Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences 5 (1),1371-1384.

Lydekker, R. 1898. Wild Oxen, Sheep and Goats of All Lands. London, Rowland Ward.

Mohanty B, Sahu G. 2012. An empirical study on elements of forest governance: A study of JFM implementation models in Odisha’ Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 37, 314 – 323.

Roberts, TJ. 1977. Mammals of Pakistan, Ernest Benn Limited. London & Tonebridge.

Schaller, G. 1977. Mountain monarchs. Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya. Chicago, University of Chicago press.

Schaller GB, Mirza, ZB. 1971. Observations on Urial and Markhor in West Pakistan. New York Zoological Society, New York, 4.

Shackleton, DM. 2001. A review of the community-based trophy hunting programs in Pakistan. Prepared for the Mountain Area Conservancy Project with the collaboration of IUCN-Pakistan, NCCW, MoELGRD, 59pp.

Snijders, TAB. 2001. Sampling In: A. Leyland and H. Goldstein (eds.) Multilevel Modelling of Health Statistics.

Stevens K,Dehgan A, Karlstetter M, Rawan F, Tawhid MI, Ostrowski S, Ali JM. Ali, R. 2011. Large mammals surviving conflict in the eastern forests of Afghanistan. Fauna & Flora International, Oryx 45(2), 265–271.

Stockley C. 1936. Stalking in the Himalayas and Northern India. London, Herbert Jenkins.

Valdez R .2008. Capra falconeri. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. http:// www.iucnredlist.org. [ accessed on 17 January 2013]

Weinberg PI, Valdez R, Fedosenko AK. 1997. Status of the Heptner´s Markhor (Capra falconeri heptneri) in Turkmenistan. J. Mammal 78, 826–829.

Woodford MH, Frisina MR, Awan GA. 2004. The Torghar Conservation Project: Management of the Livestock, Suleiman Markhor (Capra falconeri ) and Afghan Urial (Ovis Orientalis) in the Torghar Hill, Pakistan. Game and Wildlife Science 21 (3),177-187.

WWF-Pakistan .2006. Conservation of Chilghoza forest Ecosystem in Suleiman Range. GEF-Medium Size Project.