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Research Paper | September 12, 2022

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Potency of indigenous plant extracts as botanical pesticide to control anthracnose of cayenne pepper by Colletotrichum sp.

Ismed Setya Budi, Mariana Mariana

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Int. J. Biosci.21(3), 158-165, September 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/21.3.158-165

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Abstract

Cayenne Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) is one of the most economically important vegetable crops in Indonesia. Among different biotic constraints, anthracnose disease is the major limiting factor affecting yield and production of chilli crop. This fruit rot disease might cause yield loss around 50% – 100%. Botanical pesticide is an economically and environmentally viable alternative for the disease control, and also reduces negative effects towards farmers and consumers. Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica), Gulinggang (Senna Alata), and mixture of turmeric rhizome (Curcuma domestica), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Galangal (Alpinia galanga) were assessed in vitro and in vivo against Colletotrichum sp.in local cayenne pepper. In vitro test is conduct to observe the inhibition of test plant extracts against Colletotrichum sp. The fungi has been isolated from local cayenne pepper of the Hiyung variety with anthracnose. The inhibitory effect was assessed by mycelium growth assay or Poisoned food method. The effect of test plant extracts on disease intensity was observed in vivo using the capsicum fruit maceration method by observing the incidence of anthracnose in each treatment. Rhizome mixture (turmeric, ginger and galangal) which has the potential as a botanical pesticide. This is due to the in vitro test of the plant extract has ability to inhibit the growth of Colletotrichum sp by 51,38%. In the in vivo test, the mixture of rhizome extract was also effective in suppressing anthracnose disease in local cayenne pepper by 65.82% while the application of neem and gulinggang leaf extracts was less effective, with effectiveness values of only 59.38% and 43.04%, respectively.

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