Potential of intercropping pesticidal plants with common bean in promoting natural enemies for pest management in agroecosystems
Abate T, Ampofo JK. 1996. Insect pests of beans in Africa: Their ecology and management. Annual Reviews www.annual reviews.org.aronline 45–73.
Abate T. 1990. Studies on genetic, cultural and insecticidal controls against the bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), in Ethiopia. PhD Thesis. Simon Fraser University, Bumaby, BC, Canada 177.
Adda C, Atachi P, Hell K, Tamò M. 2011. Potential use of the bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens, for the control of infestation by the pink stalk borer, Sesamia calamistis on maize in southern Benin, West Africa. Journal of Insect Science 11, 1–13.
Akibode S, Maredia M. 2011. Global and regional trends in production, trade and consumption of food legume crops. Report submitted to the Standing Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) of the CGIAR Science Council, FAO, Rome, March 2011.
Allen DJ, Ampofo JKO, Wortmann CS. 1996. Pests, diseases and nutritional disorders of the common bean in Africa. International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, ISBN 958-9439-55-1, google book accessed 2017-09-08.
Altieri MA, Whitcomb WH. 1979. The potential use of weeds in manipulation of beneficial insects. HortScience 14, 12-18.
Altieri MA. 1980. Diversification corn agro systems as a means of regulating fall armyworm populations. Florida Entomologist 63, 450–456.
Altieri MA. 1994. Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems. New York, Haworth Press.
Altieri MA. 2000. Applying agro-ecology to enhance the productivity of peasant farming systems in Latin America, 197–217.
Ambachew D, Mekbib F, Asfaw A, Beebe SE, Blair MW. 2015. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly. The Crop Journal 3, 305–316.
Amoabeng BW, Gurr GM, Gitau CW, Nicol HI, Munyakazi L, Stevenson PC. 2013. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests. PLoS ONE 8, 1–10.
Ampofo JK, Massomo SM. 1998. Some cultural strategies for management of bean stem maggots (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on beans in Tanzania. Africa Crop Science Journal 6, 351-356.
Ampofo JKO, Hollenweger UV, Massomo SMS. 2002. Participatory integrated pest management (IPM) development and extension: The case of bean foliage beetles in Hai, Northern Tanzania. In: Participatory Technology Development for Agricultural Improvement: Challenges for Institutional Integration, IIRR, Cavite, Philippines.
Andow DA, 1991. Vegetational diversity and arthropod population response. Annual Review of Entomology 36, 561–586.
Anjarwalla P, Belmain SR, Sola P, Jamnadass R, Stevenson PC. 2016. Handbook on pesticidal plants Icraf.
Anonymous. 2006. Neem – growing neem, organic farming, health, animal health, environmental use, and home uses. Economic Potential, Patents, New Bazaars, Research Papers, World Neem Conference. Available from: http://www.neemfoundation.org/
Asogwa EU, Ndubuaku TC N, Ugwu JA, Awe O.O. 2010. Prospects of botanical pesticides from neem, Azadirachta indica for routine protection of cocoa farms against the brown cocoa mirid – Sahlbergella singularis in Nigeria. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4, 1–6.
Autrique A. 1989. Bean pests in Burundi; their status and prospects for control. In Proceedings of the first meeting of the Pan-African working group on Bean Entomology, 6-9.
Bacci L, Crespo AL, Galvan TL, Pereira EJ, Picanço MC, Silva GA, Chediak M. 2007. Toxicity of Insecticides to the Sweet Potato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and Its Natural Enemies. Pest Management Science 63, 699-706.
Bahar MH, Islam A, Mannan A, Uddin J. 2007. Effectiveness of some botanical extracts on bean Aphids attacking yard-long beans. Journal of Entomology 4, 136-142.
Bale JS. Lenteren JC Van, Bigler F. 2008. Biological control and sustainable food Production. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B. Biological Sciences 363, 761-776.
Basedow T, Hua L, Aggarwal N. 2006. The infestation of Vicia faba L. [Fabaceae] by Aphis fabae [Scop.] [Homoptera: Aphididae] under the influence of Lamiaceae [Ocimum basilicum L. and Satureja hortensis L.]. Journal of Pest Science 79, 149- 154.
Beizhou S, Jie Z, Jinghui H, Hongying W, Yun K, Yuncong Y. 2011. Temporal dynamics of the arthropod community in pear orchards intercropped with aromatic plants. Pest Management Science 67, 1107–1114.
Bellon S, Penvern S. 2014. Organic farming, prototype for sustainable agricultures: Prototype for sustainable agricultures. Springer Science and Business 1–489.
Blaser BC, Signer JW, Gibson LR. 2007. Winter cereal, seeding rate, and intercrop seeding rate, effect on red clover yield and quality. Agronomy Journal 99, 723–729.
Broughton WJ, Hernández G, Blair M, Beebe S, Gepts P, Vanderleyden J. 2003. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) Model food legumes. Plant and Soil 252, 55–128.
Bucheyeki TL, Mmbaga TE. 2013. On-farm evaluation of beans varieties for adaptation and adoption in Kigoma Region in Tanzania. International Scholarly Research Notices Agronomy 2013.
Buruchara R, Mukankusi C, Ampofo K. 2010. Bean disease and pest identification and management; Handbooks for small-scale seed producers’’.(Buruchara R, Mukankusi C, Ampofo K, Eds.) (Fourth). Uganda: International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) 67.
Cardona C, Frei A, Bueno JM, Diaz J, Gu H, Dorn S. 2012. Resistance to thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Bean Journal of Economic Entomology 95, 1066-1073.
Caroline C. 1996. Cypermethrin. Journal of Pesticide Reform (Vol. 16).
Catherine L, Enid, Steve K. 2015. Disaggregated analysis of bean consumption demand and contribution to household food security in Uganda. Prepared for: International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Cali Columbia.
Cai H, You M, Lin C. 2010. Effects of intercropping systems on community composition and diversity of predatory arthropods in vegetable fields. Acta Ecologica Sinica 30, 190–195.
Cortesero A, Stapel J, Lewis W. 2000. Understanding and manipulating plant attributes to enhance biological control. Biological Control 17, 35-49.
Chinwada P, Overholt WA. 2001. Natural enemies of maize stem borers on the highveld of Zimbabwe. African Entomology 9, 67-75.
Chinwada P, Overholt WA, Omwega CO, Mueke JM. 2003. Geographic differences in host acceptance and suitability of two Cotesia Sesamiae populations in Zimbabwe. Biological Control 28, 354-359.
Chinwada P, Overholt WA, Omwega CO, Mueke JM. 2004. Biology of Sturmiopsis parasitica (Diptera: Tachinidae) and suitability of three cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, Noctuidae) for its development. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97, 153-160.
DeBach, Paul. 1964. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. Biological control of insect pests and weeds.
Degri M, Mailafiya D, Wabekwa J. 2013. Efficacy of aqueous leaf extracts and synthetic insecticide on pod-sucking bugs infestation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) in the Guinea Sa-vanna. Advances in Entomology 1, 10–14.
Dent D. 2000. Insect Pest Management. (2nd Ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-662-07913-3.
Dorry MA. 2008. Forage production of eight annual medic cultivars under rain fed conditions of Golestan Province. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 10, 185-190.
Doughty J, Walker A. 1982. Etude FAO: Alimentation et Nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Rome Italy.
Duranti M, Gius C. 1997. Legume seeds: Protein content and nutritional value. Field Crops Research 53, 31–45.
Duranti M. 2006. Grain legume proteins and nutraceutical properties. Fitoterapia 77, 67–82.
Erler F. 2004. Natural enemies of the pear psylla, Cacopsylla Pyri in treated vs untreated pear orchards in Antalya, Turkey. Phytoparasitica 32, 295–304.
El-Hamawi MH, Youssef, MMA, Zawan Hanaa S. 2004. Management of Meloidogyne incognita, the root-knot nematode, on soybean as affected by marigold and sea ambrosia (damsisa) plants. Journal of Pest Science 77, 95–98.
Elmore RW, Jackobs JA. 1984. Yield and yield components of sorghum and soybeans of varying plant heights when intercropped. Agronomy Journal 76, 561–564.
Esmaeili-Vardanjani M, Askarianzadeh A, Saeidi Z, Hasanshahi GH, Karimi J, Nourbakhsh SH. 2013. A Study on common bean cultivars to identify sources of resistance against the black bean Aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Archives Of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 46, 1598–1608.
FAO. 2013. Fao Statistical Yearbook 2013. Crop production statistics. Food and Agriculture Organization: Rome. (Vol. 1). http://doi.org/10.1017/ CBO9781107415324.004.
Fischer MK, Voelkl W, Hoffmann KH. 2005. Honeydew production and honeydew sugar composition of polyphagous black bean Aphid, Aphis fabae [Hemiptera: Aphididae] on various host plants and implications for ant-attendance. European Journal of Entomology 102, 155-160.
Flint ML. 2007. In C.Laning and K. Windbiel-Rojas (Eds.), Integrated pest management for homes, gardens and landscapes 1–7.
Frank DL, Liburd OE. 2005. Effects of living and synthetic mulch on the population dynamics of whiteflies and Aphids, their Aasociated natural enemies and insect- transmitted plant diseases in Zucchini. Environmental Entomology 34, 857–865.
Gerling D. 1990. Whiteflies: Their bionomics, pest status and management. Intercept Limited. Andover, Hants, England Vii-Viii.
Gianoli E, Ramos I, Alfaro-Tapia A, Valdéz Y, Echegaray ER, Yábar E. 2006. Benefits of A maize-bean-weeds mixed cropping system in Urubamba Valley, Peruvian Andes. International Journal of Pest Management 52, 283–289.
Gospodarek J, Kaczmarczyk M, Binias B, Rusin M. 2016. Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering 61,156-161.
Gorman K, Devine D, Bennison J, Coussons P, Punchard N, Denholm I. 2007. Report of resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Pest Management Science 63, 555–558.
Graham PH, Vance CP. 2003. Legumes: importance and constraints to greater use. Plant physiology 131, 872-877.
Greathead DJ. 1968. A study in East Africa of the bean flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) affecting Phaseolus Vulgaris and their natural enemies, with the description of a new species of Melanagromyza Hend. Bulletin of Entomological Research 59, 541–561.
Gurr GM, Wratten SD, Barbosa P. 2000. Success in conservation biological control of arthropods. In measures of success in biological control (Eds G. Gurr and S. Wratten). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers 105–132.
Gurr GM, Wratten SD, Altieri MA. 2004. Ecological engineering: a new direction for agricultural pest management. Australian Farm Business Management Journal 1, 28.
Gurr GM, Lu Z, Zheng X, Xu H, Zhu P, Chen G, Yao X, Cheng J, Zhu Z, Catindig JL, Villareal S. 2016. Multi-country evidence that crop diversification promotes ecological intensification of agriculture. Nature plants 2, 16014.
Guzmán-pantoja LE, Lina-garcía LP, Bustos-zagal G, Hernández-velázquez, VM. 2009. Current Status : Mexican Medicinal Plants with Insecticidal Potential.
Hart K, Pimentel D. 2002. ‘Public Health and Costs of Pesticides’, in D. Pimentel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Pest Management, New York, Marcel Dekker 677–679.
Hassan SA. 1988. Results of the fourth joint pesticide testing programme carried out by the IOBC/WPRS-Working Group “Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms.” Journal of Applied Entomology 105, 321-329.
Hegde NG. 1995. Neem and small farmers- constraints at grass root level. Indian For 121, 1040- 1048.
Heinz KM, Brazzle JM, Parella P, Pickett CH. 1999. Field evaluations of augmentative releases of Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) for suppression of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) infesting cotton. Biological Control 16, 241–251.
Herzfeld D, Minnesota U, Sargent K. 2011. Private pesticide applicator training manual. In University of Minnesota Extension (19th ed.). Nancy Goodman (ed). Chapter 1 Integrated Pest Management Notes 1–34.
Henneberry TJ, Hendrix DL, Perkins HH, Forlow-Jech L, Burke RA. 1996. Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Honeydew and honeydew sugar relationships to sticky cotton. Southwestern Entomologist 25, 551–558.
Hillocks RJ, Madata CS, Chirwa R, Minja, EM, Msolla S. 2006. Phaseolus bean improvement in Tanzania. 1959-2005. Euphytica 150, 215–231.
Hooks CRR, Wang KH, Ploeg A, McSorley R. 2010. Using marigold (Tagetes spp.) as a cover crop to protect crops from plant-parasitic nematodes. Applied Soil Ecology 46, 307–320.
Hummel RL, Walgenbach JF, Hoyt GD, Kennedy GG. 2002. Effects of vegetable production system on epigeal arthropod populations. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93, 177–188.
International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), 2010. Bean disease and pest identification and management. Handbooks For Small-Scale Seed Producers 3. IPM legumes manual-2016-V2-The Real IPM www.realipm.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/ 08/IPM-Legumes Manual_2016_pdf.
Isman MB, Machial CM. 2006. Pesticides based on plant essential oils: From traditional practice to commercialization. Advances in phytomedicine 3, 29-44.
Isman MB. 2008. Perspective botanical insecticides: For richer, for poorer. Pest Management Science 64, 8–11.
Iwona M, Van CM, Beata G. 2011. Phytohormanal signaling in plant responses to aphid feeding. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33, 2057-2073.
Kalavacharla V, Liu Z, Meyers BC. Thimmapuram J, Melmaiee K. 2011. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Transcriptomes By Massively Parallel Pyrosequencing 1–18.
Kambewa EN. 1997. Abiotic and socio-economic constraints on common bean. ILCA Bulletin 30, 15-24.
Karani AO, Ndakidemi PA, Mbega, ER. 2017. Botanical pesticides in management of common bean pests: Importance and possibilities for adoption by small-scale farmers in Africa. Journal of Applied Life Sciences International 12, 1–10.
Karel AK, Ndunguru BJ, Price M, Semuguruka SH, Singh BB. 1981. Bean production in Tanzania. In Potentials for Field beans in Eastern Africa, CIAT, Cali, Colombia 122–154.
Karel AK, Rweyemamu CL. 1984. Yield losses in field bean following foliage damage by Ootheca bennigseni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Entomology 77, 761-765.
Karel AK. 1985. A bibliography of bean flies, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tyron), O. centrosematis (de Meij) and Melanogromyza spencerella (Greathead) (Diptera: agromyzidae). Bean/cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program Monograph no 2 Michigan State University. East Lansing 21.
Karel A, Autrique A. 1989. Insect and other pests in Africa. Bean Production Problems in the Tropics 2, 455-504.
Kasina J, Nderitu J, Nyamasyo G, Olubayo F, Waturu C, Obudho E, Yobera D. 2006. Evaluation of companion crops for thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Management on french bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26, 121-125.
Kawuki RS, Agona A, Nampala P, Adipala E. 2005. A comparison of effectiveness of plant-based and synthetic insecticides in the field management of pod and storage pests of cowpea. Crop Protection 24, 473–478.
Kennedy JH. 2011. Effects of CFT legumineTM rotenone on macro-invertebrates in four drainages of Montana and New Mexico. University of Noth Texas.
Kfir R, Overholt WA, Khan ZR, Polaszek A. 2002. Biology and management of economically important lepidopteran cereal stem borers in Africa. Annual Review of Entomology 47, 701-731.
Kong CH, Liang WJ, Hu F, Xu XH, Wang P, Jiang Y. 2004c. Allelochemicals and their transformations in A. conyzoides intercropped citrus orchard soil. Plant Soil 264, 149–157.
Landise DA, Wratten SD, Gurr GM. 2000. Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture, Annual Review of Entomology 45, 175–201.
Landis DA, Menalled FD, Costamagna AC, Wilkinson TK. 2005. Manipulating plant resources to enhance beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes. Weed Science 53, 902-908.
Letourneau DK, Altieri MA. 1983. Abundance patterns of a predator, Oriustristicolor (Hemiptera Anthocoridae) and its prey Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): Habitat attraction in polyculture versus monoculture. Environmental Entomology 12, 1464-69.
Liang WG, Huang MD. 1994. Inﬂuence of citrus orchard ground cover plants on arthropod communities in China: A review. Agriculture, ecosystem and environment 50, 29–37.
Lixa AT, Campos JM, Resende AL, Silva JC, Almeida MM, Aquiar-Menezes EL. 2010. Diversity of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) Using aromatic plants (Apiaceae) as survival and reproduction sites in Agro-ecological system. Neotropical Entomolog 39, 354–359.
Machocho AK, Rugumamu CP, Birgen JK, Amuka O, Asiimwe E. 2012. The status of green gram production, pest and disease management in parts of Lake Victoria Basin 81–90.
Malais MH, Ravensberg WJ. 2003. Knowing and recognizing, the biology of glasshouse pests and their natural enemies. Berkel en Rodenrijs. Koppert B. V. The Netherlands.
Malik S, Jabeen T, Solangi* BK, Qureshi NA. 2012. Insect pests and predators associated with different mustard varieties at Tandojam. Sindh University Research Journal – SURJ (Science Series) 44, 645–650.
Martinous A, Seraphides N, Stavrinides M. 2014. Lethal and behavioral effects of pesticides on the insect predator, Macrolophus pygmaeus. Chemosphere 96, 167-173.
Mbuya N, Fujian S. 2016. Effect of the Lepidoptera stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) on green mealies production effect of the Lepidoptera stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) on Green Mealies Production 4, 366–374.
McConnell M, Mamidi S, Lee R, Chikara S, Rossi M, Papa R, Mcclean P. 2010. Syntenic relationships among legumes revealed using a gene-based genetic linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 121, 1103–1116.
Michaud JP. 2012. Coccinellids in biological control. Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) 488–519.
Minja El. 2005. Promotion of Integrated Pest Management Strategies of major insect pests of Phaseolus beans in hillsides systems in eastern and southern Africa. Final Technical Report 61.
Mkenda PA, Ndakidemi PA. 2014. Pesticidal efficacy of four botanical pesticides on survival, oviposition and progeny development of Bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea , Vigna unguiculata. International Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences (IJPS) 3, 1504–1523.
Mkindi AG, Mtei KM, Njau KN, Ndakidemi PA. 2015. The potential of usingi indigenous pesticidal plants for insect pest control to small scale farmers in Africa. American Journal of Plant Sciences 6, 3164–3174.
Mpumi N, Mtei K, Machunda R, Ndakidemi PA. 2016. The toxicity, persistence and mode of actions of selected botanical pesticides in Africa against insect pests in common beans. A Review. American Journal of Plant Sciences 07, 138–151.
Mugisha-Kamatenesi M, Deng AL, Ogendo JO, Omolo EO, Mihale MJ, Otim M, Bett P. 2008. Indigenous knowledge of field insect pests and their management around Lake Victoria vasin in Uganda. Africa Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2, 342–348.
Mwanauta RW, Mtei KM, Ndakidemi PA. 2015. Potential of controlling common bean insect pests (Bean stem maggot, Ophiomyia phaseoli; Ootheca, Ootheca bennigseni; and Aphids Aphis fabae). Using agronomic, biological and botanical practices in field. Agricultural Sciences 6, 489–497.
Navas-Castillo J, Fiallo-Olivé E, Sánchez-Campos S. 2011. Emerging virus diseases transmitted by whiteflies. Annual Review of Phytopathology 49, 219–248.
Naveen NC, Chaubey R, Kumar D, Rebijith KB, Rajagopal R, Subrahmanyam B, Subramanian S. 2017. Insecticide resistance status in the whitefly, Bemisia Tabaci genetic groups Asia-I, Asia-II-1 and Asia-II-7 on the Indian Subcontinent. Scientific Reports 7.
Nderitu J, Mwangi F, Nyamasyo G, Kasina M. 2010. Utilization of sythetic and botanical insecticides to manage thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on snap beans (Fabaceae) in Kenya. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 5, 1-4.
Ngatimin SNA, Syatrawati, Widarawati R. 2013. Weed management on the abundance of insect natural enemies in a cabbage field. International Journal of Agriculture System 1, 65–70.
Ogenga-Latigo MW, Baliddawwa CW, Ampofo JKO. 1993. Factors infulencing the incidence of the black bean Aphid, Aphis fabae scop., on common beans intercropped with maize. African Crop Science Journal 1, 49–58.
Ogunsina OO, Oladimeji MO, Lajide L. 2011. Insecticidal Action of hexane extracts of three plants against bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais motsch. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 3, 23–28.
Ojwang’ PPO, Melis R, Songa JM, Githiri M. 2010. Genotypic response of common bean genotypes to natural field populations of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli) under diverse environmental conditions. Field Crops Research 117, 139–145.
Okoko EN, Kidula N, Mwangi G, Munyi D, Ngoze S, Ombese S, Siro H. 2005. Grow beans for food and higher income. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and Rockefeller foundation report.
Onder F. 1982. Taxonomic and faunistic studies on the fauna of anthocoridae (Heteroptera) in Turkey. Ege University, Faculty of Agriculture Res. Publ. no. 459. University Press, Izmir, Turkey (Turkish, with English abstract).
Oruonye ED, Okrikata E. 2010. Sustainable use of plant protection products in Nigeria and Challenges. Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Sciences 2, 267-272.
Overholt WA, Ochieng JO, Lammers P, Ogedah K. 1994c. Rearing and field release methods for Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of tropical gramineous stem borers. Insect Science and its Application 15, 253-259.
Paul UV. 2007. Bean pest management in East Africa: A Scientific Evaluation Of Organic Insect Control Practices Used By Tanzanian farmers (Doctoral dissertation ETH).
Parker WE, Biddle AJ. 1998. Assessing the damage caused by black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) on spring beans. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference – Pests and Diseases 1077-1082.
Parr JF. 1975. Pyrethrum: The natural insecticide. Agriculture and Environment 2, 288–290.
Penagos DI, Magallanes R, Valle J, Cisneros J, Martínez M, Goulson D, Williams T. 2003. Effect of weeds on insect pests of maize and their natural enemies in southern Mexico. International Journal of Pest Management 49, 155–161.
Phillips RD. 1993. Starchy legumes in human nutrition, health and culture. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 44, 195–211.
Pimentel D. 2005. Environmental and economic costs of the application of pesticides primarily in the United States in Integrated Pest Management: innovation-development process. Environment, Development and Sustainability 7, 229–252.
Powell W, Pell JK. 2007. Biological control. In Emden HF.van, Harrington R. (eds). Aphids as Crop Pests. CABI, Wallingford 469–513.
Prakash A, Rao J, Nandagopal V. 2008. Future of botanical pesticides in rice, wheat, pulses and vegetables pest management. Journal of Biopesticides 1, 154–169.
Powell W, Pell JK. 2007. Biological control. In Emden HF.van, Harrington R. (eds). Aphids as Crop Pests. CABI, Wallingford 469–513.
Reddy RP, Khan RN. 1990. Management of root-knot nematode infesting papaya by soil incorporation of some plant leaves. In National Symposium on Problems and Prospects of Botanical Pesticides in IPM 42.
Remaudiere G, Amonyin G, Autrique A. 1985. Les plantes hotes des pucerons africains. In Contribution a I’Ecologie des Aphides Africains. Plant Production and Protection Papers. (ed. G Re- maudiere, A Autrique). Rome FAO 64, 103-9.
Rioba NB, Stevenson PC. 2017. Ageratum conyzoides L. for the Management of pests and diseases by small holder farmers. Industrial Crops and Products.
Rodriguez-Saona C, Blaauw BR, Isaacs R. 2012. Manipulation of natural enemies in agroecosystems: habitat and semiochemicals for sustainable insect pest control. Integrated Pest Management and Pest Control – Current and Future Tactics. In Tech 89–126.
Rosenthal GA, Berenbaum MR. 1991. Herbivores: Their interaction with secondary plant metabolites, Vol II Ecological and Evolutionary Processes, 2nd edition Academic press, San Diego.
Rusin M, Gospodarek J, Nadgórska-Socha A, Barczyk G. 2017. Effect of petroleum-derived substances on life history traits of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) and on the growth and chemical composition of broad bean. Ecotoxicology (London, England) 26, 308–319.
Russelle M. 2001. Alfalfa. American Scientist 89, 252–259.
Salifu AB. 1986. Studies on aspects of the biology of flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybon), with particular reference to resistance in its host cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. PhD thesis. Wye College, Univ.London, London, UK 269.
Salih SH, Bushara AG, Ali MEK. 1990. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production and research in the Sudan.Proc. 2nd Workshop on Bean Res. East. Afr.ClAT Afr. Workshop Ser. No. 7, (ed. JB Smithson). Cali, Colombia: CIAT 30-36.
Sarwar M. 2013. Studies on incidence of insect pests (aphids ) and their natural enemies in canola Brassica napus L . (Brassicaceae ) crop ecosystem. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences 1, 78–84.
Schmid A. 1992. Untersuchungen zur Attraktivität von Ackerwildkräuter für aphidophage Marienk ä fer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Agrarökologie 5, 1–122.
Shannag HK, Ababneh JA. 2007a. Influence of black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli. on growth rates of faba bean. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 2, 328–334.
Shannag HK, Ababneh JA. 2007b. Biometry and responses of faba bean cultivars to black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3, 344–349.
Shimelis EA, Rakshit SK. 2005. Proximate composition and physico-chemical properties of improved dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties grown in Ethiopia. Food Science and Technology International 38, 331-338.
Shimelis EA, Meaza M, Rakshit SK. 2006. Physico-chemical properties, pasting behavior and functional characteristics of flours and starches from improved bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Varieties Grown in East Africa. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Ejournal 8, 1–19.
Shoeb MA. 2010. Effect of some insecticides on the immature stages of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma evanescens. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences 3, 31-38.
Singh RP, Raheja AK. 1996. Strategies in management of insect pests with neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss). In: neem and environment (Vol. I), (Singh RP, Chari MS, Raheja K et al., Eds.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India 103-120.
Singh TK, Devi LC, Varatharajan R. 2002. Role of natural enemies in the management of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt), on Brassica juncea var, rugosa (linn). Journal of Biological Control 16, 27-30.
Singh RN, Saratchandra B. 2005. The development of botanical products with special reference to Seri-ecosystem. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science 3, 1-8.
Singh A, Kataria R, Kumar D. 2012. Repellence property of traditional plant leaf extracts against Aphis gossypii Glover and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 1623-1628.
Silva EB, Franco J, Vasconcelos CT, Branco M. 2010. Effect of ground cover vegetation on the abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in citrus orchards. Bulletin of Entomological Research 100, 489–499.
Smith SM. 1996. Biological control with Trichogramma: Advances, successes, and potential of their use. Annual Review of Entomology 41, 375–406.
Smith HA, Liburd OE. 2012. Intercropping, Crop diversity and pest management 1. IFAS Extension, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 1–7.
Sola P, Mvumi BM, Ogendo JO, Mponda O, Kamanula JF, Nyirenda SP, Stevenson PC. 2014. Botanical pesticide production, trade and regulatory mechanisms in sub-saharan africa: Making a case for plant-based pesticidal products. Food Security 6, 369–384.
Song B, Tang G, Sang X, Zhang J, Yao Y, Wiggins N. 2013. Intercropping with aromatic plants hindered the occurrence of Aphis Citricola In an apple orchard system by shifting predator-prey abundances. Bio-control Science and Technology 23, 381–395.
Stevenson PC, Isman MB, Belmain SR. 2017. Pesticidal plants in Africa: A global vision of new biological control products from local uses. Industrial Crops and Products.
Stoddard FL, Nicholas AH. Rubiales D, Thomas J, Villegas-Fernández AM. 2010. Integrated Pest Management in faba bean. Field Crops Research 115, 308-318.
Stuart S. 2003. Development of resistance in pest populations.
Sydney M. 2016. Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) interaction with selected Asteraceae plants and their potential use for nematode management (Doctoral dissertation JKUA).
Thomson L, Glenn D, Hoffmann A. 2001. Effects of sulfur on Trichogramma egg parasitoids in vineyards: Measuring toxic effects and establishing release windows. Animal Production Science 40, 1165-1171.
van Lenteren JC, Woets J. 1988. Biological and integrated pest control in greenhouses. Annual Review of Entomology 33, 239–269.
van Lenteren JC. 1993a. Biological control of pests. In modern crop protection: developments and perspectives (Ed. Zadoks JC.). Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen Press 179–187.
van Lenteren JC, Bueno VHBP. 2003. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America. Bio-control 48, 123–139.
van Lenteren JC, Cock MJW, Hoffmeister TS, Sands DPA. 2006b. Host specificity in arthropod biological control, methods for testing and interpretation of the data. In Environmental impact of invertebrates for biological control of arthropods: Methods and risk assessment (Eds Bigler F, Babendreier D, Kuhlmann U). Wallingford, UK: CAB International 38–63.
Verdejo-Lucas S, Sorribas FJ, Ornat C, Galeano M. 2003. Evaluating Pochonia Chlamydosporia in a double-cropping system of lettuce and tomato in plastic houses infested with Meloidogyne javanica. Plant Pathology 52, 521–528.
Verma RS, Padalia RC, Goswami P, Verma SK, Chauhan A, Darokar MP. 2016. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Bidens pilosa. Chem. Nat. Comp 52, 340–341.
Volkl W, Stechmann DH. 1998. Parasitism of the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) by Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae): the influence of host plant and habitat. Journal of Applied Entomology 122, 201–206.
Vorley VT. 1985. Spider mortality implicated in insecticide-induced resurgence of white plant-hopper and brown plant-hopper in Kedah, Malasia. Intern. Rice. Res. Newsletter 10, 19020.
Wackers FL, 2003. The effect of food supplements on parasitoid-host dynamics. Proceedings of the first International Symposium on biological control of arthropods, Honolulu, Hawaii 18-19 January 2002. Honolulu, Hawaii 226-231.
Wattiaux MA, Howard TM. 2001. Technical dairy guide: nutrition and feeding. University of Wisconsin.
Weinzierl RA. 2000. Botanical insecticides, soaps, and oils. Biological and biotechnological control of insect pests 101–21.
Williamson S, Ball A, Pretty J. 2008. Trends in pesticide use and drivers for safer pest management in four African countries. Crop Protection 27, 1327–1334.
Winkler K, Wäckers FL, Stingli A, Van Lenteren JC. 2005. ‘Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) and its parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum show different gustatory and longevity responses to a range of nectar and honeydew sugars’ Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 115, 187–192.
Wosula DW. 2016. Effect of cropping system and variety on the incidence and severity of black bean aphid in Western Kenya. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research 4, 614–618.
You MS, Xu QY. 2000. Species composition, richness and diversity of insect communities in cruciferous ﬁelds in Fuzhou’s suburb. Journal of Fujian Agricultural University 444–452.