Pre-colonial to post-colonial Kenyan medicinal biodiversity governance and sustainable utilization

Paper Details

Research Paper 12/04/2024
Views (182) Download (9)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Pre-colonial to post-colonial Kenyan medicinal biodiversity governance and sustainable utilization

Micheni Ndii Kiraithe, C. K. Kaluwa, J. Muthama Nzioka
J. Bio. Env. Sci.24( 4), 125-139, April 2024.
Certificate: JBES 2024 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

In Kenya, there have been at least three main phases of biodiversity governance, utilization, and access, namely the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial phases. This research focuses on medicinal biodiversity governance during these distinct epochs. Using desk-top research, information on policies on medicinal biodiversity use across the country, from pre-colonial to post-colonial, was gathered. Questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from 69 key informants. A variety of methodologies including historical narrative, thematic, and content analysis were used to analyze the desk-top research. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used to analyze quantitative data from questionnaires. Traditional societies in pre-colonial Kenya managed the use of medicinal biodiversity through customary laws, beliefs, and taboos enforced through community leadership structures, according to the findings. During colonialism, colonial overlords deprived indigenous communities of their biodiversity by instituting selfish policies aimed primarily at harvesting precious biodiversity for economic use back home. When Kenya gained independence in 1963, the new government inherited a colonial constitution that hampered biodiversity governance and utilization for nearly five decades until the promulgation of the 2010 Kenya constitution, which brought hope with its provisions for sustainable utilization, management, and conservation of the environment and natural resources, as embedded in Chapter Five. However, thirteen years later, there is no major legislation in Kenya managing the sustainable use of medicinal biodiversity. The research article emphasizes the importance of good biodiversity governance at the grassroots level in order to completely realize the governance and sustainable use of medicinal biodiversity.

VIEWS 61

African Biodiversity Network Statement of Common African Customary Laws for the protection of Sacred sites. 2012.

Assessment, M. E. 2001. Millennium ecosystem assessment. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

Baron RM, Kenny DA. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of personality and social psychology 51(6), 1173.

Chatterjee S, Hadi AS. 2006. Regression analysis by example. John Wiley & Sons.

Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). 1992.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Washington). 1975.

Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS). 1979.

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar). 1971.

Cunningham AB. 1993. African medicinal plants setting priorities at the interface between conservation and primary health care. Working paper 1. Paris: UNESCO

Parajuli DR, Das TD. 2013. Indigenous knowledge and biodiversity: interconnectedness for sustainable development. International Journal of Science and Technology 2(8), 220-224, 2013.

Dore D. 2001.Transforming Traditional Institutions for Sustainable Natural Resource Management: History, Narratives and Evidence from Zimbabwe’s Communal Areas. African Studies Quarterly (2001), 5 (3).

Osakwe E. 1994. Geography: Its History, thought and Teaching, Fourth Dimension Publishers, Enugu, Nigeria, 1994.

Government of the Republic of Kenya Environmental and Management Act (EMCA). 1999

Government of the Republic of Kenya Forests Act. 2005

Government of the Republic of Kenya Health Act. 2017

Government of the Republic of Kenya Health Bill. 2012

Government of the Republic of Kenya Pharmacy and Poisons Act. 2010.

Government of the Republic of Kenya Presidential decree on Aloe.1986.

Government of the Republic of Kenya Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Cultural Expressions Act. 2016.

Government of the Republic of Kenya Sessional Paper on Traditional Medicine. 2009.

Government of the Republic of Kenya Traditional & Alternative Medicine Policy Draft. 2018.

Government of the Republic of Kenya Traditional Medicine and herbal Plants Bill. 2010.

Hatcher L, O’Rourke N. 2013. A step-by-step approach to using SAS for factor analysis and structural equation modelling. SAS institute.

IPBES. 2019. Global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.

Kenya  Forest Act, cap 365. 1969.

Kenya Constitution. 2010.

Kenya Wildlife Act. 1989.

Kenya Witchcraft Act. 1925.

Kenyan Medical Practitioners and Dentists Ordinance. 1910. The official Gazette of the colony and protectorate of Kenya general Notice No. 239.

Khumbongmayum AD, Khan ML, Tripathy RS. 2005. Sacred gloves of Manipur, North East India: biodiversity value status and strategies for their conservation. Biodivers, Conserv. 14, 1541-1582.

Kline RB. 1998. Structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.

Kokwaro JO. 1993. Medicinal plants of East Africa. Nairobi. Kenya Literature Bureau.

Köninger J, Lugato E, Panagos P, Kochupillai M, Orgiazzi A, Briones MJ. 2021. Manure management and soil biodiversity: Towards more sustainable food systems in the E.U. Agricultural Systems 194, 103251

Kurui CM, Kiptui M, Chelang’a JK, Omondi P. 2016. Traditional Controls of Harvesting and Conserving Medicinal plants in Keiyo South Sub-County, Kenya

MacDicken KG. 2015. Global forest resources assessment 2015: what, why and how? Forest Ecology and Management 352, 3-8.

Mestre-Ferrandiz J, Shaw B, Chatterjee C, Ding J, Singh P, Hopkins MM. 2022..Policy instruments (non-price) for medical innovation. Oslo Medicines Initiative technical report. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Mewnr R. 2015. Kenya Biodiversity Atlas, Ministry of Environment. Natural Resources and Regional Development Authorities, Nairobi.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment MEA. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being.Current State and Trends, World Resources Institu’

Newman DJ, Cragg GM. 2020. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the nearly four decades from 01/1981 to 09/2019. Journal of Natural Products 83, 770-803.

Osborne JW, Waters E. 2002. Four assumptions of multiple regression that researchers should always test. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation 8(1), 2.

Patricia KM, Philippe C. 1997. Law, Colonialism and Environmental Management in Africa. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law (1997), 23p.

Pett MA, Lackey NR, Sullivan JJ. 2003. Making sense of factor analysis: The use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research. Sage.

Rodrigues E, Barnes J. 2013. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines. Drug safety 36(1), 1-12.

Semwal DP, Saradhi PP, Kala CP, Salwan BS. 2010. Medicinal plants used by local Valdyas in Uttarakhand block, Uttarakhand. Indian Journal Traditional Knowledge 9(3), 480-485.

The 1900 Convention.

The Constitution of the Republic of Kenya. 1963.

The Kenya National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP). 2000.

Transforming our World: United Nations. 2030. Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Ukamba Woods and Forest Regulation. 1897.

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. 1972. Stockholm.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 1992

United Nations, Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 1992. United Nations, Montreal, Canada.

Amirka V, Heinrich M. 2014. Alkaloids as drug leads: A predictive structural and biodiversity-based analysis. Phytochemical Letter 10, 2014.

WHO. 2015. Mainstreaming Biodiversity for Nutrition and Health

Wolf EJ, Harrington KM, Clark SL, Miller MW. 2013. Sample size requirements for structural equation models: An evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educational and Psychological Measurement 73(6), 913-934.

World Health Organization Alma-Ata. 1978. Primary Health care: Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care. Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978, Geneva, 1978, Health for All Series, No.1).

World Health Organization. 1988. Chiang Mai Declaration.