J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(3), 364-375, September 2014
Production of cotton is restricted by pest infestation causing deterioration in lint quality. Spiders being generalist predators regulate insect populations. Bio diversity and relative abundance of spiders as predator as well as feeding niches of nine co existing spider species in cotton were computed and compared for the niche breadth; niche and specific overlaps. A comparative niche analysis providing insight to the community structure is a prerequisite to observe the predation impact of spiders. Overall 320 spider predators captured belong to six families, ten genera and twenty four species. Nine species constitute 85.6% of total spider predators fauna belong to Araneidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae and Thomisidae . Maximum predator population was observed in September 31.7% of total and lowest observed in July 8.75%. Neoscona mukerji was found in order 19.3 % to total synoptic species followed by Oxyopes bermanicus 16.7%, O. wroughtoni 13.5 %, O. javanus 11.3 %, Neoscona theis 10.2 %, Runcinia albostriata 9.2 %, O. hindustanicus 7.2 %, Marpisa tigrina 6.5 % and O. tineatipes forming 5.8 % respectively. The maximum spider diet comprise insect orders Hemiptera 0.28 % followed by Diptera 0.20 %, Hymenoptera 0.13 %, Orthoptera 0.10 %, Lepidoptera , 0.06 %, Odonata 0.04 %, Coleoptera , 0.05 %, Thysonoptera 0.05 %, and lastly Araneae 0.04 %. The utilization curve of Neoscona mukerji reflects major component of its diet comprised order Hemiptera, Diptera , and Hymenoptera i.e. 83% where as other insect order represent only 17%. The estimates of niche breadth reflects that Neoscona mukerji has reduced value and predates only three insect orders as diet which confirmed it is specialist predator in cotton. The Levinꞌs diet overlap estimates represent the pair comprisig of O. wroughtoni with O. Javanus,pair O. wroughtoni with O. hindustanics and pair O. tineatipes with M. tigrina, pair O. hindustanicus with R. albostriata and pair R. albostriata with O. tineatipes has complete overlap. Sixteen pairs signify complete overlap test on one another during present study out of thirty six pairs and use same resources i.e. prey items while remaining twenty three pairs represent no complete overlap and use different resources.
Alvi ZH. 2007. Taxonomical and ecological studies of spiders from some fruit gardens of district Jhang, Pakistan, M. Phil Thesis (Unpublished), Department of wildlife and fisheries, Govt. College Univ., Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Butt A, Tahir M. 2010. Resource partitioning among five agrobiont spiders of a rice ecosystem. Journal of Zoological Studies 49, 470480.
Colwell RK, Futuym FJ. 1971. On the measurement of niche breadth and overlap. Journal of Ecology 52, 567576.
Gahukar RT. 2006. Improving the conservation and effectiveness of arthropod parasitoids, for cotton pest management. Outlook on Agriciculture 35, 4149.
Ghafoor A, Ansar M. 2011. Population dynamics of the araneid fauna from district Gujranwala, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 2, 812816.
Ghavami S, Mohammadi DM, Soodi S, Javadi S, Ghannad AS. 2007. Investigating spider fauna of olive orchards in northern part of Iran. Pak. J. Bio. Sci. 10, 25622568.
Greenstone MH. 1979. Spider feeding behavior optimizes dietary essential amino acid composition, Nature 282, 501503.
Herder F, Freyhof J. 2006. Resource partitioning in a tropical stream fish assemblage. Journal of fish Biology 69, 571–589.
Harwood JD, Sunderland KD, Symondson C. 2006. Living where the food is: web location by linyphid spiders in relation to prey availability in winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology 38, 8899.
Khuhro R, Ghafoor A, Mahmood A, Khan MS, Andleeb S, Bukhari M, Maqsood I, Shahjahan M, Baloch NA. 2012. Impact of Temperature and Relative Humidity on Population Abundance of Predatory Spiders in Cotton Fields. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22, 649652.
Lang A, Filser J, Henschel JR. 1999. Predation by ground beetles and wolf spiders on herbivorous insect in a maze crop. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 72, 189199.
Ludwig JA, Reynolds JF. 1988. Statistical Ecology. Wiley, New Yark.
Masood T, Gholamali A, Zakaria K. 2007. Spider (Order Araneae) fauna of cotton fields in Iran. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 1, 711.
Muhammad A, Anjum S. 2012. Studying the sucking insect pests’ community in transgenic Bt. Cotton. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 12, 1814 9596.
Mahalakshmi R, Jeyaparvathi S. 2014. Diversity of spider fauna in the cotton field of Thailakulam, Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, India. The Journal of Zoology Studies 1, 1218.
Molles M. 2007. Ecology concepts and applications. 4th Ed. New York McGraw Hill, USA.
Marc P, Canard A. 1997. Maintaining spider biodiversity in agro ecosystem as a tool in pest control. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 62, 229235.
Nentwig W. 1985. Prey analysis of four species of tropical web weaving spiders (Araneidae) and a comparison with Araneids of the temperate zone. Oecologia (Berl.) 66, 580594.
Nentwig W, Wissel C. 1986. A comparison of prey lengths among spiders. Oecologia 8, 595600.
Nyffeler M, Sterling WL, Dean DA. 1982. Impact of the striped spiders (Araneae: Oxyopidae) and other natural enemies on the cotton flea hopper (Hemiptera, Miridae) in Texas cotton. Environmental Entomology 21, 11781188.
Nyffeler MW, Sterling L, Dean DA. 1994. How spiders make a living. Environmental Entomology 23, 13571367.
Ozyigit WI, Kahraman MV, Ercan O. 2007. Relation between explants age, total phenols and regeneration response in tissue cultured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 6, 38.
Petraitis PS. 1979. Likelihood measures of niche breadth and overlap. Ecology 60, 703710.
Riechert SE, Lockley T. 1984. Spiders as biological control agents. Annual Review of Entomology 29, 299320.
Richardson ML, Hanks LM. 2009. Partitioning of niches among four species of orbweaving spiders in a grassland habitat. Environmental Entomology 38, 651656.
Solangi A, Lanjar N, Baloch M, Rais SA. 2013. Population, host preference and feeding potential of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on different insect hosts in cotton and mustard crops. Sindh University Research Journal 1, 2126.
Saeed S, Ahmad M, Ahmad M, Kwon YJ. 2007. Insecticidal control of the mealybug Phenacoccus gossypiphilous (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) a new pest of cotton in Pakistan. Entomological Research 37, 76 – 80.
Sana A, Imtiaz AK, Muhammad S, Ahmad URS, Farkhanda M, Kamran S, Komal H, Amna S. 2011. Population dynamics of insect pests of cotton and their natural enemies. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 27, 342352.
Schwemmer P, Garthe S, Mundry R. 2008. Area utilization of gulls in a coastal farmland landscape: habitat mosaic supports niche segregation of opportunistic species. Landscape Ecology 23, 355– 367.
Turnbull AL. 1973. Ecology of the true spiders (Araneomorphae). Annual Review of Entomology18, 305348.
Turner M, Polis GA. 1979. Patterns of coexistence in a guild of raptorial spiders. Journal of Animal Ecology 48, 509520.
Uetz GW, Halaj J, Cady AB. 1999. Guild structure of spiders in major crops. Journal of Arachnology 27, 270–280.
Whitecomb WH. 1974. Natural populations of Entomophagous arthropods and their effects on the agro ecosystem, 150169 p. In Maxwell FG, Harris A. Proceeding, Institute of biological control of plant insects and diseases. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson.
Whitecomb WH, Bell K. 1964. Predacious insects, spiders and mites of Arkansas cotton fields. Arkansas Agriculture. Experimental Station. Bullettion 690.
Wise DH, Snyder WE, Tuntibunpakul P, Halaj J. 1999. Spiders in decomposition food webs of agro ecosystems: theory and practice. Journal of Arachnology 27, 36337.
Walter GH. 1991. What is resource partitioning? Journal of Theoretical biology 150, 137143.
Young OE, Edwards GB. 1990. Spiders in United States field crops and their potential effects on crop pests. Journal of Arachnology 18, 12661270.