Int. J. Biosci.10(5), 51-65, May 2017
Dillenia philippinensis (Rolfe) is an endemic plant to the Philippines. Up to date, there are no available data about the toxicity of the fruit extract, anthocyanins and polyphenols from D. philippinensis fruits. Therefore, this study investigated their adverse effects in mice. A total of 63 female ICR mice were administered with sterile water (control), crude fruit extract and various doses of anthocyanin and polyphenol at 300, 630, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg. Toxicological observations were completed for 14 days according to the guidelines set by OECD. The signs of toxicity observed were decreased motor activity, poor startle reaction, excessive micturition, decreased respiratory depth and rate, tail lashing and body tremor. Liver abnormalities such as calcification along the portal tract and focal periportal necrosis in the liver of mice treated with 5000 mg/kg anthocyanin while periportal degenerative change (focal and extensive) manifested by loss of cytoplasmic eosinophilia in mice administered with polyphenol at the same dose level confirm their toxicity. Based on the observed clinical signs and histopathological evaluation, the fruits are safe to eat as raw foods. The single oral dose of anthocyanin and polyphenol at 5000 mg/kg is toxic however, 300 mg/kg dose is recommended for daily intake.
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