Int. J. Biosci.14(1), 156-161, January 2019
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the nosocomial pathogen, causes life threatening infection include urinary tract infection (UTI), blood stream infection and soft tissue infection. The purpose of this study was to detect Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in outdoor patients based on antibiotic susceptibility profiling. Total of hundred different specimens i.e. pus, urine, blood and sputum were collected and analyzed in Microbiological laboratory for presence of Staphylococcus aureus. All specimens were inoculated on different media like MacConkey and MSA and incubated on 37°C. Disc diffusion method was used to check antimicrobial susceptible profile. Out of 100 samples Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 17 samples. Among these 17 positive samples four were MSSA, nine were both MRSA and VRSA and 4 isolates were VRSA. Among all isolates 64.71% were resistant of gentamycine, 23.53% to cefoxitin, 23.53% to vancomycin, 58.82% to erythromycin, 100% to pencilline and 52.94% to levofloxicin. Whereas all isolated strains were sensitive to linezolid only. It is concluded that MRSA and VRSA are prevalent in outdoor patients and linezolid is only antibiotic which is susceptible to all isolates.
Leticia JG, Miriam AC, Manuel MD, Ignacio RG. 2013. A concise anddiastereo selective total synthesis of cis and trans ptrerocarpans . Chem.Commu, p 2689-2691.
Howden BP, Davies JK, Johnson PD, Stinear TP, Grayson ML. 2010. Reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus, including vancomycin-intermediate and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediatestrains: Resistance mechanisms,laboratory detection, and clinical implications. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 23, 99 139.
Van SJ, Jensen SO, Vaska VJ, Espedido BA, Paterson DL, Gosbell IB. 2012. Predictors of mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. J. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 25(2), 362 86.
Atkinson BA, Lorian V, Antimicrobial agent susceptibility patterns of bacteria in hospitals from 1971 to. 1982. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1984. 20, 791 796.
Chambers HF. 2001. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Emerg. Infec. Dise. 2, 178-182.
NNIS National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from. Jan 1992 through June 2003, American Journal of Infection Control 31, 481-498.
Deurenberg RH, Stobberingh EE. 2008. The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Genet Evol. 8, 747–763.
Thati V, Shivannavar CT, Gadda SM. 2011. Vancomycin resitance among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from intensive care units of tertiary care hospitals in Hyderabad. Indian J Med Res. 134, 704-708.
Pierard D, Vandenbussche H, Verschraegen I, Lauwers S. 2004. Screening for Staphylococcus aureus with a reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in a Belgian hospital. Pathologie Biologie 52, 486-8.
Trakulsomboon S, Danchaivijitr S, Rongrungruang Y, Dhiraputra C,Susaemgrat W, Ito T, Hiramatsu K. 2001. The first report on methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in Thailand. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39, 591595.
Heather M. 2009. MRSA-happy and thriving in Canada. What’s inemergency Doctor supposed to do. J Can Assoc Emerg Physician 1, 111.
Tambekar DH, Dhanorkar DV, Gulhane SR, Dudhane MN. 2008. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from healthcare and community associated sources. Afr J Infect Dis 1, 52-56.
Romeeza T, Nadeem A, Nauman J, Afia A, Kunwal R. 2009. Discrepancies in the diagnosis of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among different hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. The Int Med J 8, 7-10.
Siddiqi GM, Siddiqi T, Anwar MS. 2009. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A study in a tertiary care hospital. Biomedica 25, 56-58.
Perwaiz S, Barakzi Q, Farooqi BJ, Khursheed N, Sabir N. 2007. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates of Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus . J Pak Med Assoc. 57, 2-4.
Farzana K, Hameed A. 2006. Resistance pattern of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus against five groups of antibiotics. J Res Science 17, 19-26.
Sonavane A, Mathur M. 2007. Screening of Vancomycin intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of MRSA. India J Med Microbial 25, 79-80.
Mehdinejad M, Sheikh AF, Jolodar A. 2008. Study of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and species of coagulase negative Staphylococcus isolated from various clinical samples. Pak J Med Science 24, 719-724.
Shahriar M, Shahid S, Katha KK, Nasreen W, Bhuiyan MA. 2012. Vancomycin sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical patients in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Pharma J 15, 1-4.
Bataineh AB. 2006. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin in Zarqa, Jordan. Pak J Med Science 22, 144-148.
Mir BA, Shrikanth. 2013. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulae negative Staphylococci in a tertiary care hospital. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 6(3), 231-234.
Goyal A, Diwakar MK, Bhoosan S, Goyal S, Agrawal A. 2013. Prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at a tertiary care hospital in Agra, North India – A Systemic annual review. IOSR JDMS 11(6), 80-84.
Gemmell CG. 2001. Susceptibility of variety of clinical isolates to linezolid: a European inter-country comparison. J Antimicrob Chemother 48, 42-52.
Kaleem F, Usman J, Hassan A, Omair M, Khalid A, Roz U. 2010. Sensitivity Pattern of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Iran J Microbiol 2, 141-143.