Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in Abs, Hajjah Governorate Northwest Yemen

Research Paper | July 1, 2016

| Download 6

Bushra Hussain Shnawa, Ali Ali Al-Ezzi, Gamal Hasan Abed, Mohamed Bassam Al-Salahy, Ahmed Mohamed Mandour, Mervat Mohamed

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.9( 1), 59-71, July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/9.1.59-71


IJB 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most common infection and endemic disease in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of P. falciparum malarial disease among patients in Abs region, Hajjah Governorate, Yemen from September 2013 to May 2014. Both thick and thin films were made and stained using Giemsa stain. Blood smears of 1528 cases out of 8434 individuals showed malarial parasites in their blood, the overall prevalence percentage was 18.1%. Male subjects were more infected (18.17%) compared to females (18.04%). Incidence of falciparum malaria was higher in winter in comparison to other seasons. The infection mostly occurred in age groups of five to fourteen years old. Regarding the symptoms, patients showed fever (100%), followed by chills (89.8%), headache (85.4%) and vomiting (54.7%). Lack of health care in rural regions of study area in addition to delay of treatment had an impact on the further injury and increase the clinical symptoms associated with disease.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in Abs, Hajjah Governorate Northwest Yemen

Abdulsalam MQA, Mohammed AKM, Ahmed AA, Fong MY. 2010. Clinical situation of endemic malaria in Yemen. Tropical Biomedicine 27, 551–558.

Abed GH, Mandour AM, Naffady AA, El-Shamiri A. 2003. Studies on abundance of malaria parasites infectiong human in Taiz-Yemen. Bulletin of the Faculty of Science Assiut University 33, 25–38.

Alkadi HO, Al-Maktari MT, Nooman MA. 2006. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum local strain in Taiz governorate, Republic of Yemen. Chemotherapy 52, 166–170.

Al-Maktari MT, Bassiouny HK, Al-Hamd ZS, Assabri AM, El-Massry AG, Shatat HZ. 2003. Malaria status in Al-Hodeidah governorate, Yemen: malariometric parasitic survey and chloroquine resistance P. falciparum local strain. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 33, 361–372.

Al-Maktari MT. 1995. Malaria situation in Zabid district Al-Hodeidah Governorate Repuplic of Yemen. M.Sc Thesis, High Institute of Public Health. Alexandarisa University, Egypt.

Al-mekhlafi AM, Al-mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MAK, Azazy AA, Fong MY. 2011. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 105, 187–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/136485911X129876766494 21.

Al-Taiar A, Assabri A, Al-Habori M, Azazy A, Algabri A, Alganadi M , Whitty CJ, Jaffar S. 2009. Socioeconomic and environmental factors important for acquiring non-severe malaria in chil-dren in Yemen: a case–control study. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 103, 72–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.09.010.

Al-Taiar A, Jaffar S, Assabri A, Al-Habori M, Azazy A, Al-Mahdi N, Ameen K, Greenwood BM, Whitty CJ. 2006. Severe malaria in children in Yemen: two site observational study. B M J 333:827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38959.368819.BE.

Anstey NM, Susan P. Jacups SP, Cain T, Ziesing PTPJ, Fisher DA, Currie BJ, Marks PJ, Maguire GP. 2002. Pulmonary Manifestations of Uncomplicated Falciparum and Vivax Malaria: Cough, Small Airways  Obstruction, Impaired Gas Transfer, and Increased Pulmonary Phagocytic Activity.  The  Journal  of  Infectious  Diseases  185, 1326–1334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/339885.

Atif SH, Farzana M, Naila S, Abdul FD. 2009. Incidence and pattern of malarial infection at a tertiary care Hospital of Hyderabad. World Journal of Medical Sciences 4, 9–12.

Bassiouny HK, Al-Maktari MT. 2005. Malaria in late pregnancy in Al Hodeidah Governorate,Yemen. East Mediterranean Health Journal 11, 606–617.

Bloland PB, Boriga DA, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Roberts JM, Oloo AJ, Hawley W, Lal A, Nahlen B, Campbell CC. 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission II. Descriptive epidemiology of malaria infection and disease among children. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 60, 641–8.

Carneiro I, Roca-Feltrer A, Griffin JT, SmithL, Tanner M, Schellenberg JA, Greenwood B, Schellenberg D. 2010. Age-patterns of malaria vary which severity, transmission intensity and seasonality in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and pooled analysis. PLoS One 5, e8988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008988.

Choge JK, Magak NG, Akhwale W, Koech J, Ngeiywa MM, Oyoo-Okoth E, Esamai F, Osano O, Khayeka-Wandabwa C, Kweka EJ. 2014. Symptomatic malaria diagnosis overestimatemalaria prevalence, but underestimate anaemia burdens in children: results of a follow up study in Kenya. BMC Public Health 14, 332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-332.

Collins WE. 2012. Plasmodium knowlesi: a malaria parasite of monkeys and humans. Annual Review of Entomology 57, 107–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-121510 133540.

Epidi TT, Nwani CD, Ugorji NP. 2008. Prevalence of malaria in blood donors in Abakaliki Metropolis, Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essay 3, 162–164.

Haque U, Ahmed SM, Hossain S,Huda M, Hossain A, Alam MS, Mondal D, Khan WA, Khalequzzaman M, Haque R. 2009. Malaria Prevalence in Endemic Districts of Bangladesh. PLoS ONE 4, e6737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006737.

Houngbedji CA, N’Dri PB, Hurlimann E, Yapi R, Silue K, Soro G, Koudou BG, Acka CA, Assi S, Vounatsou P, N’Goran EK, Fantodji A, Utzinger J, Raso G. 2015. Disparities of P. falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity and access to malaria prevention and treatment among school-aged children: a national cross-sectional survey in Cote d’Ivoire. Malaria Journal 14, 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-14-7.

Ibekwe AC, Okonko IO, Onunkwo AI, Ogun AA, Udeze AO, Ejembi J. 2009. Comparative prevalence level of Plasmodium in freshmen (first year students) of Nnamdi Azikwe University in Awka, South- Eastern, Nigeria. Malaysian Journal Microbiology 5, 51–54.

Imbahale SS, Fillinger U, Githeko A, Mukabana WR, Takken W. 2010. An exploratory survey of malaria prevalence and people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in western Kenya. Acta Tropica 115, 248–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.04.005.

Incardona S, Vong S, Chiv L, Lim P, Nhem S, Sem R Khim N, Doung S, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Fandeur T. 2007. Large-scale malaria survey in Cambodia: novel insights on species distribution and risk factors. Malaria Journal 6, 37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-37.

Kashinkunti M, Alevoor S. 2014. Clinical, Hematological and Coagulation Proflile in Malaria. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences 2, 584– 588.

Legesse Y, Tegegn A, Belachew T, Tushune K. 2007. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Malaria Transmission and Its Preventive Measures among Households in Urban Areas of Assosa Zone, Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 21, 157–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhd.v21i2.10044.

Malik GM, Osheik S, Abdelmageed E, Abdin SM. 1998. Clinical aspects of malaria in the Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine 18, 15–17.

Miller LH, Baruch DI, Marsh K, Doumbo OK. 2002. The pathogenic basis malaria, Nature.  415, 673–679. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1038/415673a.

National Malaria Control Programme. 2009. The annual report of malaria cases in different Governorate of Yemen. 1.

Nkoghe D, Akue J-P, Jean-Paul Gonzalez J-P, Leroy EM. 2011. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in asymptomatic rural Gabonese populations. Malaria Journal 10, 33. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-33.

Rasheed A, Saeed S, Khan SA. 2009. Clinical and laboratory findings in acute malaria caused. Journal Pakistan Medical Association 59, 220–223.

Roetynck S, Baratin M, Johansson S, Lemmers C, Vivier E, Ugolini S. 2006. Natural killer cells and malaria. Immunology Review 214, 251–263.

Ropert MH,Torres RSC,Goicochea CGC, AndersonEM, Guarda, JSA, Calampa C, Hightower AW, Magill AJ. 2000. The epidemiology of malaria in endemic area of the peruvian Amazon. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62, 247–256.

Singh, B, Kim Sung L, Matusop A, Radhakrishnan A, Shamsul S S, Cox-Singh J., Thomas A, Conway DJ. 2004. A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings. Lancet 363, 1017–1024.

Snow RW, Guerra CA, NoorAM, Myint HY, Hay SI. 2005. The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 434, 214–217. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1038/nature03342.

Syafruddin D, Krisin, Asih P, Sekartuti, Dewi RM, CoutrierF, Rozy IE, Susanti AI, Elyazar IRF, Sutamihardja A, Rahmat A, Kinzer M, Rogers WO. 2009. Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia. Malaria Journal 8, 8. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1186/1475-2875-8-8.

Thomson MC, Connor SJ, Phindela T, Connor SJ. 2005. Use of rainfall and seasurface temperature monitoring for malaria early warning in Botswana. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73, 214–221.

World Health Organization. 2009. Yemen:coveage with primary health indicator. WHO.

World Health Organization. 2010. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria-Second Edition, WHO. p1– 194.

World Health Organization. 2011. World Malaria Report 2011. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. (p. 259).

World Health Organization. 2012 World Malaria Report 2012. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. (p.105).

World Health Organization. 2014. World Malaria Report 2014. WHO, Geneva.