J. Bio. Env. Sci.19(6), 145-158, December 2021
This study was carried out to investigate the regeneration potential of Ternstroemia cameroonensis Cheek. a critically endangered medicinal plant in the Lebialem Highlands, Cameroon by seeds and stem cuttings. Air dried seeds were subjected to abrasion with sand paper, soaked in hot water and 98% concentrated sulphuric acid at various duration. Seeds pre-treated with 98% concentrated sulphuric acid for 1 minute (T21), 3 minutes (T22) had the best latent period 43.6 and 41.25 days respectively. There was a significant difference in the germination percentage, with seed soaked in 98% concentrated sulphuric acid for 3 minutes (T22) having the highest germination percentage (20%) followed by those soaked in 98% concentrated sulphuric acid for 6 minutes (T23) with a germination percentage of 12.22%. Early growth performances of seedlings were not significant. All seeds subjected to abrasion with sand paper and those soaked in hot water at various duration failed to germinate. In addition, rooting of stem cuttings was significantly affected by the application of synthetic hormones as well as alternative sources. The best survival percentage of stem cuttings was in coconut water (CW) (28.7%) followed by IBA (22.75%). Stem cuttings with 50% leaf area had the best survival percentage (34.9%) compared to others. Low concentrations of IBA (0.5g/l and 0.2g/l) and soaking in CW for 4 h had the best performance.
Agele SO, Ayankanmi TG, Kikuno H. 2010. Effects of synthetic hormone substitutes and genotypes on rooting and mini tuber production of vine cuttings obtained from white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir). African Journal of Biotechnology 9(30), 4714- 4724.
Ambebe TF, Abubakar AS, Anjah GM. 2019. A comparative evaluation of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and plant extracts as potential rooting enhancers in cuttings of Vitex diversifolia and Cordia milleneii. International Journal of Forest, Animal and Fisheries Research 3(4),154-159.
Amri E, Lyaruu HVM, Nyomora AS Kanyeka ZL. 2009. Vegetative propagation of African Blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon Guill. & Perr.): effects of age of donor plant, IBA treatment and cutting position on rooting ability of stem cuttings. New Forest, 39, 183-194 https:doi.org/10.1007 /s11056-009-9163-6
Amusa TO. 2011. Effects of three pre-treatment techniques on dormancy and germination of seeds of Afzelia africana (Sm. Ex pers). J Hortic For 3(4), 96-103.
Aref IM, Ali H, Atta E, Al-Shahrani T, Ismail A. 2011. Effects of seed pretreatment andseed source on germination of ﬁve Acacia spp. Afr J Biotechnol 10(71),15901-15910.
Aronu AJ, Nwachukwu OC, Adebayo O. 2010. The effect of pre-treatments on germination of seeds of Aframomum melegueta in southern Nigeria. Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Eastern Research Station, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries 2(1), 6-28.
Ashton MS and Hall JS. 2011. The Ecology, Silviculture, and Use of Tropical Wet Forests with Special Emphasis on Timber Rich Types. Springer 8(12),145-192.
Asif MJ, Ali A, Mazhar MZ, Tanvir A, Zia BT, Bilal- Anmbreen I, Anjum MZ, Mahr MS. 2020. Effect of different pre-treatments on seed germination of Prosopis juliflora and Dalbergia sissoo: a step towards mutation breeding. Journal of Forest Science 2, 80-87.
Atangana AR, Tchoundjeu Z, Asaah EK, Simons AJ, Khasa DP. 2006. Domestication of Allanblackia floribunda: Amenability to vegetative propagation. Forest Ecol Manag 237, 246-251.
Baul TK, Mezbahuddin M, Hossainmm, Mohiuddin M. 2010. Vegetative propagation of Holarrhena pubescens, a wild tropical medicinal plant: effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on stem cuttings. For. Stud. China 12(4), 228-235.
Bell F, Lamb E, Sharma M, Hunt S, Madhur A, Dacosta J. 2016. Relative influence of climate, soils, and disturbance on plant species richness in northern temperate and boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management 381, 93-105.
Benech RL, Giallorenzi M, Frank J, Rodriguez V. 1998. Termination of hull-imposed dormancy in developing barley grains is correlated with changes in embryonic ABA levels and sensitivity. Seed Science Research 9, 39-47.
Bewley JD. 1997. Seed germination and dormancy. The Plant Cell 9,1055-1066.
Bhattacharya S, Bandopadhyay TK, Ghosh PD. 2010. Somatic embryogenesis in Cymbopogon pendulus and evaluation of clonal fidelity of regenerants using ISSR marker. Sci. Horticult 123, 505-513.
Carusetta S. 2014. Homemade Rooting Compound for Plants. Retrieved from http://homeguides.sfgate. com/homemade-rooting-compound-plants38260.
Cheek M, Tchiengue B Tacham WN. 2017. Ternstroemia cameroonensis (Ternstroemiaceae), a new medicinally important species of montane tree, nearly extinct in the Highlands of Cameroon. Blumea 62, 53-57.
Cheek M. 2000. Ternstroemia polypetala poster. Royal Bontanic Gardens, Kew. Ternstroemia (Pentaphylacaceae) from La Amistad Binational Park and World Heritage Property, Costa Rica and Panama. Phytotaxa 217, 87-91.
Dada CA, Kayode J, Arowosegbe S. 2019. Effects of rooting hormones on the juvenile stem cuttings of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae). World News of Natural Sciences 23, 336-342.
Dunsin O, Ajiboye G, Adeyemo T. 2016. Effect of alternative hormones on the rootability of Parkia biglobosa. Scientia Agriculturae 13(2), 113-118.
Ellis RH, Hong TD, Robert EH. 1985. Handbook of seed technology for Genebank: Principle and Methodology. Volume 1. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources. Rome.
Hartmann HT, Kester DE, Davies FT. 1990. Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Hassanein AMA. 2013. Factors influencing plant propagation efficiency via stem cuttings. Journal of Horticultural Science and Ornamental Plants 5(3), 171-176.
Howland P. 1975. Vegetative propagation methods for Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. In: Proceedings of the symposium on variation and breeding systems of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum; Ibadan, Nigeria. Ibadan: Federal Department of Forest Research P. 99-106.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List categories and criteria: Version 3.1. Second edition. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [accessed: Jan. 2017].
Kanmegne G, Anouma’a M, Mbibong DA, Mbouobda HD, Fotso E, Omokolo DN. 2015. Domestication of Cola anomala K. Schum. (Sterculiaceae): amenability to vegetative propagation. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 24(1), 18-26.
Koorneefm L, Bentsink HH. 2002. Seed dormancy and germination. Plant Biology 5, 33-36.
Leakey RRB, Last FT, Longman KA. 1982. Domestication of tropical trees: an approach securing future productivity and diversity in managed ecosystems. Commonw For Rev 61, 33-42.
Leakey RRB, Mesen JF, Tchoundjeu Z, Longman KA, Dick JMCP, Newton A, Matin A, Grace J, Munro RC, Muthoka PN. 1990. Low technology techniques for the vegetative propagation of tropical trees. Commonw For Rev 69(3), 247-257.
Letouzey R. 1977. Présence de Ternstroemia polypetala Melchior (Théacées) dans les Montagnes Camerounaises. Adansonia Série 2, Tome 17, fascicule 1, 5-10.
Mares DJ. 2005. Quarterly reports on plant growth regulation and activities of the PGRSA. Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 33, 78-89.
Mbogue CNN, Anjah GM, Nkemnkeng FJ. 2021. Vegetative propagation of Echinops giganteus using stem and root cuttings. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 13(1),1-8.
Mesen F, Newton AC, Leakey RRB. 1997. The effects of propagation environment and foliar areas on the rooting physiology of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pavon) Oken cuttings. Trees 11, 401-411.
Missanjo E, Chioza A, Kulapani C. 2014. Effects of different pretreatments to the seed on seedling emergence and growth of Acacia polyacantha. International Journal of Forestry Research 1-6.
Niang-Diop F, Sambou B, Lykkem A. 2010. Constraintes de regeneration naturelle de Prosopsis africana: Facteur affectant la germination des grains. Institut des Science Anta Diop. BP:5005. Daker Fanna, Senegal 4(5),1693-1705.
Nkemnkeng FJ, Anjah GM, Tacham WN, Mbogue CNN, Wouokoue TJB, Nguetsop VF. 2021. Population distribution, conservation status and vulnerability of Ternstroemia cameroonensis Cheek. in the Lebialem Highlands, Cameroon. Int. J. Curr. Res. Biosci. Plant Biol 8(2), 1-10.
Olayiwola AM, Eludoyin AO, Ekecha AE. 2011. Land use change in the Mezam Division of the North West Province , Cameroon from Landsat Imageries (1988 and 2001). Ethopian Journal of Environmental studies and management 4(1), 49-55.
Opuni-Frimpong E, Karnosky DF, Storer AJ, Cobbinah JR. 2008. Key roles of leaves, stockplant age, and auxin concentration in vegetative propagation of two African mahoganies: Khaya anthotheca Welw. and Khaya ivorensis A. Chev. New Forest 36, 115-123.
Schaal BA. 2000. ‘Reproductive capacity and seed size in Lopimiumtexenis. America Journal of Botany 6, 703-709.
Schmidt L. 2000. Guide to Handling Tropical and Subtropical Forest Seed. Danida Forest Seed Center, Krogerupvej 21, DK – 3050 Humleback, Denmark pp 1-510.
Smith BN, Harris LC,mcCarlie VW, Stradling DL, Thygerson T. 2001. Time, plant growth, respiration, and temperature. Hand book of plant and crop physiology. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY, USA pp. 1-11.
Tacham WN, Fonge BN, Fonkou T. 2015. Traditional medicine and ethnobotanical use of wild plants by the Mundani people of Wabane, South West Region, Cameroon. Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine Photon 125, 1060-1080.
Tchoundjeu Z, AvanamL, Leakey RRB, Simons AJ, Asaah E, Duguma B, Bell JM. 2002. Vegetative propagation of Prunus africana: effects of rooting medium, auxin concentrations and leaf area. Agrofor Syst 54, 183-192.
Tchoundjeu Z, Leakey RRB. 2001. Vegetative propagation of Lovoa trichilioides: effects of provenance, substrate, auxins and leaf area. J Trop For Sci 13(1), 116-129.
Toogood AR, Anderson P. 1999. Plant propagation. American Horticultural Society.
Uniyal AK, Bhatt BP, Todaria NP. 2000. Provenance characteristics and pretreatment effects on seed germination of Grewia oppositifolia roxb—a promising agroforestry tree crop of garhwal himalaya, India. Int Tree Crops J 10(3), 203-213.
Wamegni J. 1991. Etude de la phénologie, des fruits, des graines et de la germination de Fagara macrophylla. Mémoire d’Ingénieur des Eaux et Forêts à l’Université de Dschang. pp.50.
WHINCONET. 2007. Plant and Animal Guide for the Western Cameroon Highlands, 14p. Tropical trees: the potential for domestication and the rebuilding of forest resources. London: HMSO P, 15.
Xavier C, Carmen UU. 2016. Ternstroemia washikiatii (PENTAPHYLACACEAE): A New Tree Species From Eastern Ecuador. Harvard Papers in Botany 21(2), 337-339.
Yong JWH, Ge L, Fei-Ng Y, Tan SN. 2009. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water. Molecules 14(12), 5144-5164.
Younis A, Riaz A. 2005. Effect of various hormones and different rootstocks on rose propagation. Caderno de Pesquisa Serie Biologia, 17(1),111-118.