Prospects and scope of precision engineering, protected agriculture and vertical farming in Pakistan- A review

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/09/2019
Views (455) Download (22)

Prospects and scope of precision engineering, protected agriculture and vertical farming in Pakistan- A review

Muhammad Kazim Nawaz, Zia-Ul-Haq, Sohail Raza Haidree, Hamza Muneer Asam, Talha Mehmood, Abdul Qadeer
Int. J. Biosci.15( 3), 505-5513, September 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Precision agriculture is designed to improve agricultural production system through generating and converging multiple information based systems to boost income and reduce environmental hazards. These techniques have shown advantages for farmers as well as reduced environmental pressures in advanced world. This article offers overview of agricultural accuracy and observes potential, opportunities, consequences, problems and significance of agricultural precision apps in Pakistan’s agricultural system. Farmer and government establishments should look forward to implementing fresh and supportable technologies in this view to improve effectiveness of accessible resources and decrease involvement expenses. Before this, it is necessary to realize the efficiency of precision techniques in Pakistan through field studies and procedures in land management. Before this, it is necessary to realize the efficiency of precision techniques in Pakistan. Precision farming (PA) idea was launched as a mixture of positioning system technology, adaptable rate technology, remote sensing, yield mapping, etc. for site-specific crop management to enhance productivity, Sustainability with decreased environmental impact. Recent study has concentrated considerably on different characteristics of protective structures for protected agriculture. For vertical farming, study has often identified technological differences depending on outdoor / indoor structures, ways to enhance the access of crops to light (natural or artificial), increasing media and nutrient/ water supply, sophisticated structures such as generating electricity and integrating manufacturing room into an office / residential room, and water treatment.


Adamchuk VI, Hummel JW, Morgan MT, Upadhyaya SK. 2004. On-the-go soil sensors for precision agriculture. Computers and Electronics in Agric 44(1), 71-91.

Aimrun W, Amin MSM, Rusnam M, Ahmad D, Hanafi MM, Anuar AR. 2009. Bulk soil electrical conductivity as an estimator of nutrients in the maize cultivated land. Euro. J. Sci. Res 31(1), 37-51.

Al-Kodmany K. 2018. The vertical farm: A review of developments and implications for the vertical city. Buildings 8(2), 24.

Amjad A. 2012. Key challenges facing Pakistan agriculture: how best can policy makers respond? A note. Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Bakhsh A. 2011. Decision support system for better crop productivity and environmental quality. Department of Irrigation & Drainage, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

Basu TK. 2011. Effect of Cobalt, Rhizobium and Phosphobacterium Inoculations on Growth, Yield, Quality and Nutrient Uptake of Summer Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 1(1), 21-26.

Benke K, Tomkins B. 2017. Future food-production systems: Vertical farming and controlled-environment agriculture. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy 13(1), 13-26.

Bernal LEP, Rumayor A, Perez O, Reyes E. 2010. Competitiveness of Zacatecas (Mexico) protected agriculture: The fresh tomato industry. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 13(1), 1-20.

Bhadoria PBS. 2011. Allelopathy: A Natural Way towards Weed Management. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 1(1), 7-20.

Bramley R, Trengove SAM. 2013. Precision agriculture in Australia: Present status and recent developments. Engenharia Agrícola 33(3), 575-588.

Bustamante MJ. 2018. “AgTech and the City: The Case of Vertical Farming and Shaping a Market for Urban-Produced Food.” In Managing Digital Transformation, edited by P. Andersson, S. Movin, M. Mähring, R. Teigland, K. Wennberg, and K. McGettigan, 281. Stockholm, Sweden: SSE Institute for Research, Stockholm School of Economics.

Clarkin E. 2016. “The Next Generation of Vertical Farming: Creating a Regenerative Typology of Urban Space and Programming.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, US.

De-Anda J, Shear H. 2017. Potential of vertical hydroponic agriculture in Mexico. Sustainability 9(1), 140-156.

Devlin H. 2016. “Plants Modified to Boost Photosynthesis Produce Greater Yields, Study Shows.” Guardian, science/2016/nov/17.

ESRI. 2012. Geographic Information System. Available at webpage: www.esri .com./what – is-gis (verified on July 16, 2013).

Gebbers R, Adamchuk VI. 2010. Precision agriculture and food security. Science 327(5967), 828-831.

Ghafoor A, Hussain M, Naseer K, Ishaque M, Baloch MH. 2010. Factors affecting income and saving of small farming households in Sargodha district of Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Agric. Agri. Engineering and Vet. Sci 26(2), 27-35.

Gill MA. 1994. On-farm water management: A historical overview. In: Inayatullah, C. (ed), Water and Community: An assessment of On-Farm Water Management Programme. SDPI, Islamabad 24-39.

GoP. 2012. Agriculture Statistics 2011-12. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Heath T, Zhu Y, Shao Z. 2012. “Vertical Farm: A High-Rise Solution to Feeding the City?” Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) Research Paper. Accessed February 7, 2019. http://global.

Jiang WJ. 2009. “Present Situation on Protected Horticulture in China.” Accessed February 7, 2019. 11/Jiang-paper-Protected-horticulture-in-China.pdf.

Kahlown MA, Gill MA, Ashraf A. 2002. Evaluation of resource conservation technologies in rice-wheat system of Pakistan – Research Report-I, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), Islamabad.

Kalantari F, Tahir OM, Lahijani AM, Kalantari S. 2017. A review of vertical farming technology: A guide for implementation of building integrated agriculture in cities. Advanced Engineering Forum 24, 76-91.

Kalkat GS. 2000. Agriculture in India – II, Punjab faces post-green Revolution problems Tribune, Chandigarh India p. 7-8.

Keskin M, Sekerli YE. 2016. Awareness and adoption of precision agriculture in the Cukurova region of Turkey. Agronomy Research 14(4), 1307-1320.

Mahapatra SC. 2011. Study of Grass-Legume Intercropping System in Terms of Competition Indices and Monetary Advantage Index under Acid Lateritic Soil of India. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 1(1), 1-6.

Mahmood HS, Hoogmoed WB, Henten EJ. 2012 Sensor data fusion to predict multiple soil properties. Precision Agric 13(6), 628-645.

Mahmud MSA, Buyamin S, Mokji MM, Abidin MZ. 2018. Internet of things based smart environmental monitoring for mushroom cultivation. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 10(3), 847-852.

McBratney AB, MendonVa ML, Minasny B. 2003. On digital soil mapping. Geoderma 117(1-2), 3-52.

Mondal P, Basu M. 2009. Adoption of precision agriculture technologies in India and in some developing countries: Scope, present status and strategies. Progress in Natural Science 19, 659-666.

Moulton A. 2015. “Greenhouse Governmentality: Discourses of Rural Development and the Negotiation of Farmer Subjectivity in Jamaica.” PhD Dissertation, Department of Geography, Planning and Environment. East California University.

Moustafa AT, Mohammadi AA, Abou-Hadid A, Peacock JM. 1998. Protected Agriculture in the Arabian Peninsula. Summary proceedings of an International Workshop, Doha, Qatar, February 15-18. ICARDA.

Moustafa AT. 2010. Potential of protected agriculture and hydroponics for improving the productivity and quality of high value cash crops in Qatar. ICARDA.

Padilla LE, Lara A, Reyes E, González JR. 2015. Assessing environmental management of tomato production under protected agriculture. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 18(3), 193.

Paustian M, Theuvsen L. 2017. Adoption of precision agriculture technologies by German crop farmers. Precision Agriculture 18(5), 701-716.

Pierce FJ, Nowak P. 1999. Aspects of Precision Agriculture. Adv. Agron 67, 1-85.

Saidi, Morocco. 2019. International Workshop on Precision Agriculture, Saidia/Morocco (September, 2019).

Schimmelpfennig D. 2016. Farm Profits and Adoption of Precision Agriculture (No. 249773). Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Shanwad UK, Patil VC, Gowda HH. 2004. Precision farming: dreams and realities for Indian agriculture, Map India Conference. GIS Development Net.

Sopan GS. 2011. “A Critical Analysis of Entrepreneurs in Protected Agriculture in Maharashtra.” Doctoral dissertation, Division of Agricultural Extension, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.

Srinivasan A. 2001. Precision agriculture in Asia: Progress and prospects Geospatial Analysis Center, Regional Science Institute, Hokkaido, Japan.

Stafford JV. 2000. Implementing precision agriculture in 21st century. J. Agric. Eng. Res 76, 267-275.

Tiwari A, Jaga PK. 2012. Precision farming in India – A review. Outlook on Agriculture 41(2), 139-143.

USAID. 2009. Pakistan’s Food and Agricultural Systems, United States Agency for International Development. Nathan Associates Inc.

Vrindts E, Mouazen AM, Reyniers M, Maertens K, Maleki M, Ramon H, Baerdemaeker J. 2005. Management zones based on correlation between soil compaction, yield and crop data. Biosystems Eng 92(4), 419-428.

Wang T, Wu G, Chen J, Cui P, Chen Z, Yan Y, Zhang Y, Li Y, Niu D, Li B, Chen H. 2017. Integration of solar technology to modern greenhouse in China: Current status, challenges and prospect. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 70, 1178-1188.

Whelan BM. 2007. Current status and future directions of PA in Australia, Proc. second Asian Conf. on Precision Agriculture, Pyeongtaek, Korea 60-71.

Wood GA, Welsh JP, Taylor JC, Godwin RJ, Knight SM. 2003. Real time measures of canopy size as a basis for spatially varying nitrogen at different seed rates in winter wheat. Biosystems Eng 84(4), 513-531.

Yue SX, Hui L, Ning L. 2016. A new detection method with color and depth images based on Kinect sensor for greenhouse plants. Journal of Chinese Agricultural Mechanization 8, 155-161.

Zhang N, Wang M, Wang N. 2002. Precision agriculture- A worldwide overview. Computers and Electronics in Agric 36(2-3), 113-132.