Int. J. Biosci.17( 4), 1-31, October 2020
In Africa, aquaculture has contributed to global fish production over the past decade, supporting rising fish demand and improving incomes and food security of the growing populations in the region. However, there are significant concerns for the health of aquatic resources due to the increasing impacts of climate change and climate variability. Aquaculture in Africa also faces increasing constraints as competition from the agricultural sector for the available resources intensifies, significantly impacting location, productivity, and scalability of the sector’s production systems. The contributions of the aquaculture sector to global emissions of greenhouse gases are discussed. We recognize that ecosystems are generally complex; therefore, we have provided region-specific and local context-specific, climate-smart aquaculture solutions required to enable sustainable growth of the sector. This review paper is a reminder of the effects of climate change impacts on the vulnerable aquaculture-dependent economies and communities in Africa. It also provides a framework of strategic climate-smart aquaculture (CSA) approaches for the sector to (a) sustainably increase output productivity and efficiency; (b) reduce vulnerability and increase resilience, and (c) mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in fisheries and aquaculture. In Africa, climate-smart success will depend on country-specific biophysical, socio-economic dynamics, institutional and market capacity, regional geopolitics, and local needs and interests. To enhance resilience, increase efficiency, and avoid maladaptation of the proposed CSA approaches, African governments should integrate their national climate change policies and aquaculture programs with broader development objectives such as food security, sustainability, biodiversity, social equity, and stability.
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