Int. J. Biosci.18(1), 199-212, January 2021
Wheat, rice, and maize are the three most important cereal grains used as staple food in all over the world and especially, in Pakistan, wheat is the principal source of the daily calorie and protein intake of the population with balance coming from animal source. In the pre-historic period of agriculture, farmer observed that dry grains stored longer than wet grains. Moreover, insects as well as animals are responsible to destroy this cereal crop under in field and storage conditions. In spite of awareness to farmers about grain production and conservation, losses become a serious problem faced by farmers of developing countries. To overcome these issues many developed countries launched some program to reduce grain losses. Kernel of each cereal grain is just like a small storage container has ability to protect inside the kernel that contains edible material which can be changed under the influence of environment. The influence of the biotic conditions depends a great deal on the durability and property of the kernel of cereal grains. The introduction of high yield verities increased grain production. The higher productivity included the need for better methods of grain handling, drying, storage and processing. Insects constantly change their response to chemical control measures, thus required research, training and extension are necessary components in the successful adoption of improved grain post-harvest technology.
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