Public health implications of microbial contamination of restaurant tables in Abraka

Paper Details

Research Paper 08/02/2023
Views (468) Download (75)

Public health implications of microbial contamination of restaurant tables in Abraka

Omotejohwo Emily Okolosi-Patani, Christiana Orevaoghene Akpo, Obataze J. Akpoyovwere, Cyril Egbuche
Int. J. Biosci.22( 2), 148-155, February 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Foodborne diseases include an array of illnesses triggered by the ingestion of foods contaminated with microorganisms or chemicals, and the area where people eat is one of the significant sites from where microorganisms find their way into food. This study is aimed to microbiologically evaluate the table surfaces of some local restaurants within Abraka, Delta state. A total of fifteen samples collected from fifteen random restaurants within Abraka, Delta State, were evaluated for their microbial quality using standard procedures. The Bacteria counts ranged from 2.5 × 105 to 7.0 ×106 (CFU/ml), while the fungal counts ranged from 5.0 × 104 to 4.7 × 106 (CFU/ml). Microorganisms isolated were Enterobacter spp (13.33%), Staphylococcus aureus (53.33%), Staphylococcus spp (66.67%), Klebsiella spp (20.00%), Aspergillus spp (6.67%), Candida albicans (40.00%) and Trichophyton spp (6.67%). The result of this study showed a high prevalence of pathogenic organisms present on the tested table surfaces which include Candida albicans and Staphylococcus spp etc. The result revealed a high microbial count suggesting an increased possibility of cross-contamination which could lead to various gastrointestinal infections that can give rise to health hazards and also place an economic strain on the population. To curb this, there is a need for government legislation to be put in place to enforce proper microbial safety within all forms of food processing and handling facilities.


Akpo CO, Umukoro J. 2019. Bacteriological and Physiochemical Analysis of Water from RiverEthiope, Abraka. Sokoto Journal of Medical Laboratory Science 5(1), 114 – 120.

Alam NH, Ashraf H. 2003. Treatment of infectious diarrhea in children. Paediatric drugs 5(3), 151–165.

Alao FO, Nejo VM. 2018. Microbial assessment of herbal products in Ota and its environs. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology 31(2), 3479-3484.

Argudín MÁ, Mendoza MC, Rodicio MR. 2010. Food poisoning and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Toxins 2(7), 1751–1773.

Biranjia-Hurdoyal S, Latouche MC. 2016. Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables. The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale 2016, 3574149.

Bukhari MA, Banasser TM, El-Bali M,  Qamash RA. 2021. Assessment of microbiological quality of food preparation process in some restaurants of Makkah. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(10), 5993-5997.

Das KK, Fatema KK, Nur IT, Noor R. 2013. Prevalence of microorganisms in commonly used cosmetics samples in Dhaka metropolis. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation 2(6), 7-9.

Davin-Regli A, Lavigne JP, Pagès JM. 2019. Enterobacter spp.: Update on Taxonomy, Clinical Aspects, and Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance. Clinical microbiology reviews 32(4), e00002-19.

Fraser C, Hanage WP, Spratt BG. 2007. Recombination and the nature of bacterial speciation. Science 315(5811), 476-480.

Helms M, Vastrup P, Gerner-Smidt P, Mølbak K. 2003. Short and long term mortality associated with foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal infections: registry based study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 326(7385), 357.

Ifiora GC, Chukwunwejim C, Ejikeugwu C, Egbuna R, Ifiora FC. 2020. Microbiological safety assessment of food handlers in Wudil Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria. MicroMedicine 8(1), 22-27.

Kadariya J, Smith TC, Thapaliya D. 2014. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal foodborne disease: an ongoing challenge in public health. BioMed research international 2014, 827965.

Konwea PE. 2012. Increasing trends in the consumption of Fast-foods in Nigeria. AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities 1(1), 95-109.

Mehta TK, Sharma DN, Shah PD. 2020. Evaluation of pattern of bacterial contamination of outpatient department table surfaces in relation to cleaning and disinfection practices in a tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad. Indian journal of public health 64(4), 339–344.

Mohammed SSD, Ayansina ADV, Mohammed SR, Oyewole OA, Shaba AM. 2018. Evaluation of Food Contact Surfaces in Selected Restaurants of Kaduna State University for the Presence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Science World Journal 13(3), 45-49.

Onyeneho SN, Hedberg CW. 2013. An assessment of food safety needs of restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. International journal of environmental research and public health 10(8), 3296-309.

Paul A, Rahman MM, Ahmed T. 2019. Identification of pathogenic bacteria from food handling surfaces (tabletops) from different areas with demonstration of their drug resistance properties. Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene 5(3), 165- 174.

Paulussen C, Hallsworth JE, Álvarez-Pérez S, Nierman WC, Hamill PG. 2017. Ecology of aspergillosis: insights into the pathogenic potency of Aspergillus fumigatus and some other Aspergillus species. Microbial biotechnology 10(2), 296–322.

Querido MM, Aguiar L, Neves P, Pereira CC., Teixeira JP. 2019. Self-disinfecting surfaces and infection control. Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces 178, 8–21.

Scharff RL 2012. Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United   States. Journal of food protection 75(1), 123-131.

World Health Organization. ‎2015‎. WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases: foodborne disease burden epidemiology reference group 2007-2015 World Health Organization. Retrieved from

Yousif EI, Ashoush IS, Donia AA, Hala Goma KA. 2013. Critical control points for preparing chicken meals in a hospital kitchen. Annals of Agricultural Science 58(2), 203–211.