Purification performance at the entrance and exit of an artificial marsh in duplicate (plant and control) with Horizontal Sub-Area Flow (Al Haouz, Marrakesh, Morocco)

Paper Details

Research Paper 03/01/2024
Views (278) Download (43)

Purification performance at the entrance and exit of an artificial marsh in duplicate (plant and control) with Horizontal Sub-Area Flow (Al Haouz, Marrakesh, Morocco)

Ihsane Mouaouia, Fatima Zehra Bouchmiaa, Khalid Dhassi, Ouiam El Galiou, Mostafa Lamhamdi
Int. J. Biosci.24( 1), 52-60, January 2024.
Certificate: IJB 2024 [Generate Certificate]


Increasing demand for water for human, industrial and agricultural consumption, coupled with repeated national droughts, have prompted decision-makers to consider wastewater as a valuable water resource that must be reused after treatment. This study is part of the integrated management of water resources in the face of the water shortage affecting our country, by looking at the treatment of greywater from the dwellings of a village in Marrakech. This study focuses on the treatment and reuse of greywater through a planted filter, using a reed (Phragmites australis), with horizontal sub-surface flow and another unplanted to determine the purification efficiency of this type of treatment system through the measurement of certain physicochemical parameters of wastewater such as: nitrogen compounds, phosphorus compounds, suspended solids etc. This study provides an overview of the elements relating to the works planned for autonomous wastewater treatment. The results of the analyses obtained during this study have helped us to establish a diagnosis of certain physico-chemical parameters, and to measure the degree of pollution of domestic wastewater, and to draw certain remarks as follows: Human activity in towns and cities is at the root of changes in the degree of pollution of urban wastewater. To achieve near-optimum environmental protection, and for every domestic wastewater reuse project, the State must regulate and opt for environmental impact studies. Economically speaking, local authorities can treat domestic wastewater at very affordable costs.


Abou-Tammame D, Abdeljalil Zouhri A, Boutarfa A, Fathi J, Aboutayeb R. 2021. The Effect of Purified Wastewater on the Physicochemical Properties of Agricultural Soils in Chaouia in Morocco. Journal of Ecological Engineering 23, 34–42. https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993/143868

Angassa K, Leta S, Mulat W, Kloos H, Meers E. 2017. Organic matter and nutrient removal performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with Phragmite karka and Vetiveria zizanioide for treating municipal wastewater. Environmental Processes 5, 115–130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-017-0276-1

Arliyani I, Voijant Tangahu B, Mangkoedihardjo S. 2021. Plant diversity in a constructed wetland for pollutant parameter processing on leachate: a review. Journal of Ecological Engineering 22, 240–255. https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993/134041

Ayaz T, Khan S, Khan AZ, Lei M, Alam M. 2020. Remediation of industrial wastewater using four hydrophyte species: A comparison of individual (pot experiments) and mix plants (constructed wetland). Journal of Environmental Management 255, 109833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109833

Bergheim A, Brinker A.  2003.  Effluent treatment for flow-through systems and European environmental regulations. Aquacultural engineering 27, 61-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8609(02)00041-9

Bubba MD, Arias CA, Brix H. 2003. Phosphorus adsorption maximum of sands for use as media in subsurface flow constructed reed beds as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Water Research 37, 3390-3400. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00231-8

Brix H, Arias CA. 2005. The use of vertical flow constructed wetlands for on-site treatment of domestic wastewater: New Danish guidelines. Ecological Engineering 25, 491–500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005.07.009

Coulibaly L, Kouakou J, Savané I, Gourène G. 2008a. Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained pilot scale constructed wetland planted with Amaranthus hybridus. African Journal of Biotechnology 7, 2656-2664.

Coulibaly L, Savané I, Gourène G. 2008b. Domestic wastewater treatment with a vertical completely drained pilot scale constructed wetland planted with Corchorus oliterius. African Journal of Agricultural Research 3, 587-596.

Ennabili A, Radoux M. 2020. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of three helophytes in constructed surface flow wetlands for urban wastewater treatment. IIUM Engineering Journal 21, 25-40. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v21i2.1207

García-Ávila F, Patiño-Chávez J, Zhinín-Chimbo F, Donoso-Moscoso S, Flores del Pino L, Avilés-Añazco A. 2019. Performance of Phragmites australis and Cyperus Papyrus in the treatment of municipal wastewater by vertical flow subsurface constructed wetlands. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 7, 286-296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2019.04.001

Hadad HR, and Maine MA. 2007.  Phosphorous amount in floating and rooted macrophytes growing in wetlands from the Middle Paraná River floodplain (Argentina). Ecological Engineering 31, 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.08.001

Mouaouia I, Sawadogo WO, Laaat J, Khalfi H, Alaa N. 2018. Mathematical Modeling and numerical simulation of Phosphorus Reactive transport in an Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland treating Greywater. Journal of Advanced Mathematical Studies 11, 347-358.

Mouaouia I, Sawadogo WO, Charkaoui A, Alaa N. 2019. Mathematical modelling of nitrogen removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. Annals of the University of Craiova Mathematics and Computer Science Series 46, 27–40. https://doi.org/10.52846/ami.v46i1.1209

Kadlec RH, Wallace S. 2008. Treatment wetlands 2nd edition.  CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group: Boca Raton, Florida, United States, 349-401.

Maltais-Landry G, Maranger R, Brisson J. 2009. Effect of artificial aeration and macrophyte species on nitrogen cycling and gas flux in constructed wetlands.  Ecological Engineering 35, 221-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.03.003

Molle P. 2003.  Reed bed filters: hydraulic limits and phosphorus retention (in French). PhD thesis, University of Montpellier 2, France, 217.

Münch C, Kuschk P, Röske I. 2004. La stimulation racinaire de l’élimination de l’azote concerne-t-elle des zones limitées ou l’ensemble d’un marais artificiel ? (in french)  Ingénieries N° spécial, 5-11.

Prasanna K, Sudarsan JS, Nithiyanantham S. 2017. Wastewater treatment using combined biological and constructed wetlands technique in paper mills. Sustainable Water Resources Management 3, 431–439. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-017-0108-5

Pichura V, Potravka L, Ushkarenko V, Chaban V, Mynkin M. 2022. The use of hydrophytes for additional treatmnet of municipal sewage. Journal of Ecological Engineering 23, 54–63.  https://doi.org/10.12911/22998993/146754

Rezaie H, Sahlezadeh M. 2014. Performance removal nitrate and phosphate from treated municipal wastewater using Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia aquatic plants Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism 4, 315-321.

Sindilariu PD, Brinker A, Reiter R. 2009. Factors influencing the efficiency of constructed wetlands used for the treatment of intensive trout farm effluent. Ecological Engineering 35, 711-722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.11.007

Tanner CC, Kadlec RH, Gibbs MM, Sukias JPS, Nguyen ML. 2002. Nitrogen processing gradients in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands: influence of wastewater characteristics. Ecological Engineering 18, 499-520. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(02)00011-3

Vymazal J. 2011. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Five Decades of Experience. Environmental Science and Technology 45, 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1021/es101403q

Weaver RW, Stecher MC, McInnes KJ. 2003. Water flow patterns in subsurface flow constructed wetlands designed for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. Environmental Technology 24, 77-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330309385538