Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | February 1, 2020

| Download 1


Muhammad Kashif, Ali Muhammad, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Uzair, Muhammad Faiq, Saifullah, Wasif Ur Rahman, Muhammad Maaz Khan

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.16(2), 342-360, February 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/16.2.342-360


IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Research work was conducted to find out microbial and physiochemical characteristics of (Bore and Tube well) water in the coal mines mountainous terrain of Darra Adam Khel. A total fourteen number of samples with three replicates were taken from seven villages (Bazi Khel, German Kaly, Qasam Khel, Suni Khel, Feroz Khan Mela, Toor Khel and Akhoor wall) and were checked for the effect of coal mines on drinking water. Samples were evaluated for pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Calcium, Magnesium, Chlorides, Hardness, Heavy metals (Zinc, Iron, Copper, Lead, Manganese and Chromium) and total coliform. Physiochemical analyses showed that pH in range of 7.4 to 7.9, Total dissolved solids was 260.67mg/l to 476.67mg/l, Electrical conductivity was 39.83μS/cm to 76.30μS/cm, Carbonates was 38.3mg/l to 97.67mg/l, Bicarbonates was 136.3mg/l to 197.3mg/l, Calcium was 22.80mg/l to 95.86mg/l, Magnesium was 55.79mg/l to 97.29mg/l, Chlorides was 69.35mg/l to 182.00mg/l and Hardness was 262mg/l to 458mg/l. Heavy metals such as zinc was 0.017mg/l to 0.067mg/l, copper was 0.008mg/l to 0.096mg/l, manganese was 0.030mg/l to 0.386mg/l, lead was 0.12mg/l to 1.82mg/l, chromium was 1.13mg/l to 8.16mg/l and iron were in range of 0.016mg/l to 0.113mg/l. Total coliform was 0 MPN/ 100 ml to 210 MPN/ 100 ml. The results showed that pH, TDS, EC, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Hardness, Magnesium, Chloride, Zinc, Iron, Copper, Manganese were in the safe level according to PSI and WHO level. While some samples of Calcium, Lead, Chromium and total Coliform count were above WHO recommended level and making it unfit for drinking purpose.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0


AOAC. 2012. Official methods of analysis of the Association of official Analytical chemist. Arlington, VA, USA, 17th Ed.

APHA (American Public Health Association). 2005. Standard Methods for Examination of water and waste water. 20th Ed. USA.

Arnold EG, Lenora SC, Andrew DE. 1992. Standard Method for the examination of water and waste water. 18th edition. American Public Health Association. Washington, D. C. part 10000.

Asta M, CAMA PJ, Soler JM, Arvidson RS, Luttge A. 2008. Interferometric study of pyrite surface reactivity in acidic conditions. American Mineralogist 93(1), 508-519.

Aston JJ. 2000. Conceptual Overview of the Olifants River Basin’s Groundwater, South Africa. An Occasional Paper for the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in conjunction with the African Water Issues Research Unit (AWIRU).

Azrina A,   Khoo HE, Idris MA, Amin I, Razman MR. 2011. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition 17(2), 271– 276.

Bacha AA, Durrani M, Paracha PI. 2010. Chemical characteristics of drinking water of Peshawar. PAK. Journal Nutrition 9(10), 1017-1027.

Cefalu WT, Hu FB. 2009. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes, Diabcare 27(1), 2741-2751.

Daud MK, Nafees M, Ali S, Rizwan M, Chatha AS, Deeba F, Malook I. 2017. Drinking water quality status and contamination in Pak; Biomed Research International. Volume 2017, Article ID: 7908183 p 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7908183

Dhanaji K, Shagufta SSA, Pramod JN. 2016. Physicochemical analysis of drinking water samples of different places in Kagegaon Tahsil (india). Pelgagia Research Library 7(6), 41-44.

Dhirendra MJ, Kumar A, Agarwal N. 2009. Studies on physicochemical parameters to assess the water quality of river ganga for drinking purpose in haridwar district. Rasayan Journal Chemistry 2(1),  195-203.

Dissmeyer GE. 2000. Drinking water from Forests and Grasslands, South Research Station, USDA Forest Service.

Estvao A, Pondja J, Kenneth M, Persson N, Matsinhe P. 2017. Assessment of coal mine water in Moatize by static and leaching tests. Sustainable Water Resources Management 3(4), 403-412.

Environment Agency. 2008. Assessment of metal mining-contaminated river sediments in England and Wales. Environment Agency, Science Department, Bristol.

EPA. 2002. EPA safe drinking water fact sheets. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA. 2004. Drinking water health advisory for Mn. Accessed from safe water.

Fang L, Li X, Shao A. 2018. Impact of the mining on the spatial distribution of potentially toxic metals in farmland tillage soil. Soil Science Report 8(1), 1-5.

Gautam K, Ravindra S, Sharma K, Mahiya S, Chattopadhyaya MC. 2014. Contamination of Heavy Metals in Aquatic Media, Transport, Toxicity and Technologies for Remediation. Environmental Chemistry Research 7(1), 37-28.

Ghoochani M, Shekoohiyan S, Mahvi A, Haibati B, Narouzi M. 2011. Detergent in Tehran ground and surface water. American, Eurasian Journal of Agriculture Environmental Sciences

10(1), 464-469.

Sikakwe GU. 2017. Environmental Geochemical Studies on the effects of coal mining In Akwuke- Awkanawnaw, Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research 5(1), 8-23.

Howladar MF, Deb PK, Muzemder AT MSH, Ahmed M. 2014. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Applied Water Science 4(5), 203–222.

Hussain J, Shah J, Hussain W, Ali R, Lopes WA, Khan I. 2012. Evaluation of the quality of drinking water of Mardan district, KPK, PAK. American-Eurasiam Journal Agriculture and environmental Sciences 12(8), 1047-1051.

Hussein H, Farag S, Kandil K, Moawad H. 2005. Tolerance and uptake of heavy metals by Pseudomonads. Process Biochemistry 40(1), 955-961.

Javid H, Shah J, Hussain W, Ali R, Sousa LJ Khan I. 2012. Evaluation of the Quality of Drinking water of Mardan District, KPK, Pakistan. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences 12(8), 1047-1051.

Katsoyiannis IA, Zouboulis AI. 2013. Removal of uranium from contaminated drinking water. Journal Desalination and water treatment 51(1), 2915-2925.

Katsoyiannis IA, Zouboulis AI. 2013. Removal of uranium from contaminated drinking water a mini review of available treatment methods, Desalination and Water Treatment 51(13), 2915–2925.

Kopezinski I. 2000. Mineração X Meio Ambiente: considera ções legais, principais impact osambientai seseus process osmodificadores. Porto Alegre: Editora Universidade.

Kumar G. 2015. Impact of coal mining on water quality. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of degree requirements.

Kumar M, Ramanathan AL, Rao MS, Kumar B. 2006. Identification and evaluation of hydrogeochemical processes in the groundwater environment of Delhi, India. Journal of environmental Geology 50(7), 1025-1039.

Lui J, Yang HY, Simon N, Kummu M, Florke M. 2000. Past and future trends in grey water footprints to major world rivers. Ecological Indicator 18(1), 42-49.

Lui Z, Daoxin Y. 2014. Effect of coal mine water of variable pH on spring water quality. Environmental Geological water Sciences 17(3), 219-225.

Malkani MS. 2012. A review of coal and water resources of Pakistan. Journal of Science, Technology and Development 31(3), 202-218.

Meck ML, Love D, Mapani BS. 2006. Zimbabwean Mine Dumps and their Impact on River Water Quality a Reconnaissance Study. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31(1), 797-803.

Mehmood S, Asif A, Anwaar A, Nauman K, Tariq J. 2013. Drinking water Quality in Capital City of Pakistan. Open Access Scientific Reports 2, 637. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/scientificreports637.

Mohammad M, Hydari N, Bidgoli H. 2012. Chemical Analysis of drinking water kashan district Central Iran. World applied Science Journal 16(1), 799-805.

Nagamani. 2015. Physico-chemical analysis of water samples. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 6(1), 227-232.

Nasir A, Arslan C, Khan MA, Nazir N, Awan U K, Ali MA. 2012. Industrial waste water management in District Gujranwala of Pakistan Current status and future suggestions, Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural Science 49(1), 79-85.

Nawab J, Khan S, Khan MA, Sher H, Rehamn UU, Ali S, Shah S.M. 2016. Potentially Toxic Metals and Biological Contamination in Drinking water Sources in Chromite Mining Impacted Areas of Pakistan: A Comparative Study Expo Health, 1-13.

Nollet. 2000. Handbook of water analysis, Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.

Patil PN, Sawant DV, Deshmuk RN. 2012. Physicochemical parameters for testing water. Intern. Journal of Environmental Sciences 3(3), 1194-1207.

PCRWR. 2010. Pakistan Council of Research inn Water Resources, Islamabad, Pakistan, Annual Report.

PSI. 1987. Pakistan Standards Institute. Specification for drinking water. Pakistan Standard Institute, Karachi, Pakistan.

Rasheed FK, Kazmi SU. 2009. Bacteriological and antimicrobial analysis of drinking water of earth quake affected area of Pakistan. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology 5(1), 123-127.

Reddy TB, Ramana CV, Bhaskar C, Chandrababu PJ. 2012. Assessment of Heavy Metal Study on Ground Water in and Around Kapuluppada Msw Site, Visakhapatnam 3(2), 468-471.

Rose AW, Cravotta CA. 1998. Coal Mine Drainage Prediction and Pollution Prevention in Pennsylvania. Geochemistry of coal mine drainage. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection 1(1), 111-122.

Roohi A, Ahmed I, Paek J, Sin Y, Abbas S, Jamil M, Chang YH. 2014. Bacillus pakistanensis sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from salt mines of the Karak Area in Pakistan. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 105(6), 1163-1172.

Sanderson, Mathew R, Jason S, Bergtold, Jessica L, Stamm H. 2005. Factors associated with the presence of Coliforms in water. Journal of Applied Environmental Microbes 71(10), 6026-6032.

Solanki HA. 2012. Status of soils and water reservoirs near industrial areas of Baroda: pollution and soil – water chemistry. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany 376.

Tiwary R. 2001. Environmental impact of coal mining on water regime and its.

Alhamed M, Stefan W. 2014. Environmental impact of abandoned coal mines on the surface water and underground water quality in Bochum, Germany. Environmental Earth Sciences 10(1), 1-17.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1997. Principles and procedure of statistics. Megraw Hill Book Company, 2nded New York. 633.

Storelli MM, Storelli A, Daddabbo R, Marano C, Bruno R, Marcotrigiano GO. 2005. Trace elements in loggerhead turtles (Carettacaretta) from the eastern Mediterranean Sea: overview and evaluation. Environmental Pollution 135(1), 163-170.

Truman S, Light, Elizaeth A. 1995. The conductivity of low concentration of CO2 dissolved in ultrapure water from 0-100C. American Chemical Society, 1-17.

Usher BH, Cruywagen LM, Necker E, Hodgson FDI. 2003. On-site and Laboratory Investigations of Spoil in Opencast Collieries and the Development of Acid-Base Accounting Procedures, Water Research Commission, WRC 1(1), 3-25.

Wang BXi, Sun Y, Huo S, Zheng B, Kolditz O. 2015. Thematic issue; water of the Taihu Lake. Environmental Earth Sciences 74(1), 3929-3933.

Scharer JM, Pettit CM, Kirkaldy JL, Bolduc L, Halbert BE, Chambers DB. 2000.  Leaching of metals from sulphide mines wastes at neutral pH. In: ICARD Proceedings from the Fifth International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, vol 1. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Denver, Colorado.

Wei W, Rui M, Ziyong S, Aiguo Z, Jianwei B, Yunde L. 2018. Effects of mining on the release of heavy meals in a typical mountain Headwater Region, the Qinghai- Tibat plateau in China. International Journal of Environment And Public Health 15(1):, 1-19.

WHO. 2004. Guideline for Drinking water Quality World Health Organization, Geneva, ISBN: 92 4 154638 7.1: 3rded.  515.

World Health Organization. 2011 Guidelines for Drinking water Quality, WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland, 4thedition.

Yadav HL, Jamal A. 2018. Assessment of water quality in coal mines. Rasayan Journal of chemistry 11(1), 46.52.

Farooq S, Hashmi I, Qazi IA, Qaiser S,  Rasheed S. 2008. Monitoring of Coliforms and chlorine residual in water distribution network of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 140(1-3), 339-47.

Tandon P, Chhibber S, Reed RH. 2005. Inactivation of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria in traditional brass and earthern ware water storage vessels. Antonie Van Leeuwen hoek 1, 35-48.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background