Quantification of spatio-temporal variations of potential evapotranspiration in lower Chenab Canal East

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2018
Views (434) Download (11)

Quantification of spatio-temporal variations of potential evapotranspiration in lower Chenab Canal East

M. Usman, R. N. Ahmad, M. R. Khan
Int. J. Biosci.13( 1), 147-157, July 2018.
Certificate: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Potential Evapotranspiration (ETo) is a major component of the hydrologic cycle whose precise estimation is central to water allocation, water resource management, irrigation scheduling, and hydrologic water balance studies. Present study was conducted to quantify the spatio-temporal variation in the command of Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) East, Rechna Doab, Pakistan. The ETo was calculated using globally recognized Penman Monteith method in Cropwat 8.0 for 30-year average climatic data of four weather stations. Spatial analysis of data was performed by employing IDW interpolation technique in Arc GIS-10.1. The increasing trend was more pronounced from January to June and decreasing trend was observed from June to January. The maximum ETo 7.95 mm/day was observed in hottest month of June, whereas minimum ETo 1.55 mm/day was observed in month of January. The interpolated results of ETo showed resemblance to local climatic condition and observed lowest ETo 1641mm/yr at head and highest ETo1777 mm/yr at tail of the study area. The results revealed that the 72% ETo occurs in kharif season whereas, only 28% remains in rabi season. Local weathers parameters i.e. air temperature and sunshine hours are main cause of spatial variation in ETo whereas, regional climate conditions contribute for temporal changes. Study confirmed high water demand during kharif period and increasing aridity toward tail of canal command. The results of research are useful for planning and efficient use of available water resources. Future work could be performed by using advanced techniques and should be linked to climate change scenario.


Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. Rome, Italy.

Allen RG, Pruitt WO, Wright JL, Howell TA, Ventura F, Snyder R, Itenfisu D, Steduto P, Berengena J, Baselga J, Smith M, Pereira LS, Raes D, Perrier A, Alves I, Walter I, Elliott R. 2006. A recommendation on standardized surface resistance for hourly calculation of reference ETo by the FAO56 Penman-Monteith method. Agricultural Water Management 81, 1-22 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.03.007

Chow VT, Maidment DR, Mays LW. 1988. Applied Hydrology, illustrate. Edition Mcgraw-Hill Higher Education, New York.

Chuanyan Z, Zhongren N, Zhaodong F. 2004. GIS-assisted spatially distributed modeling of the potential evapotranspiration in semi-arid climate of the Chinese loess plateau. Arid Environments 58(3), 387-403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2003.08.008

Cohen S, Ianetz A, Stanhill G. 2002. Evaporative climate changes at Bet Dagan, Israel, 1964-1998. Agricultural and forest Meteorology 111, 83-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00016-3

DehghaniSanij H, Yamamoto T, Rasiah V. 2004. Assessment of evapotranspiration estimation models for use in semiarid environments. Agricultural Water Management 64(2), 91-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(03)00200-2

Frich P, Alexander LV, Della-Marta P, Gleason B, Haylock M, Tank AK, Peterson T. 2002. Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research 19, 193-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/cr019193

Garcia M, Raes D, Allen R, Herbas C. 2004. Dynamics of reference evapotranspiration in the Bolivian highlands (Altiplano). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 125(1), 67-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.03.005

George BA, Reddy BRS, Raghuwanshi NS, Wallender WW. 2002. Decision support system for estimating reference evapotranspiration. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 128 (1), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)07339437(2002)128:1(1)

Goyal RK.2004. Sensitivity of evapotranspiration to global warming: a case study of arid zone of Rajasthan (India). Agricultural Water Management 69 (1), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2004.03.014

Irmak S, Kabenge I, Skaggs KE, Mutiibwa D. 2012. Trend and magnitude of changes in climate variables and reference evapotranspiration over 116-yr period in the Platte River Basin, central Nebraska-USA. Journal of Hydrology 420/421, 228-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.006

Kashyap PS, Panda RK. 2001. Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimation methods and development of crop-coefficients for potato crop in sub-humid region. Agricultural Water Management 50(1), 9-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(01)00102-0

Khan S, Rana T, Ullah K, Christen E, Nafees M. 2003. Investigating conjunctive water management options using dynamic surface-groundwater modeling approach: A case study of Rechna Doab. CSIRO Land and Water, Technical Report 35/03.

Ladlani I, Houichi L, Djemili L, Heddam S, Belouz K. 2012. Modeling daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) in the north of Algeria using generalized regression neural networks (GRNN) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN): a comparative study. Meteorology Atmospheric Physics 118, 163-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00703-012-0205-9

Li ZX, He YQ, Wang PY, Theakstone WH, An WL, Wang XF, Lu AG, Zhang W, Cao WH. 2012. Changes of daily climate extremes in southwestern China during 1961-2008. Global and Planetary Change 80-81, 255-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.06.008

Mohan S. 1991. Intercomparison of evapotranspiration estimates. Hydrological Sciences Journal 36(5), 447-460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02626669109492530

Penman HL. 1948. Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proceeding of Royal Society of London, Series. A Mathematical and Physical Sciences 193 (1032), 120-145. www.jstor.org/stable/98151.

Roderick M, Farquhar GD. 2002. The cause of decreased pan evaporation over the past 50 years. Science 15, 1410-1411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1075390

Shen SSP, Dzikowski P, Li G, Griffith D. 2001. Interpolation of 1961-97 daily temperature and precipitation data onto Alberta polygons of Eco district and Soil Landscapes of Canada. Journal of Applied Meteorology 40, 2162-2176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/15200450(2001)040<216;IODTAP>2.0.CO;2

Smith M. 2000.The application of climatic data for planning and management of sustainable rainfed and irrigated crop production. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 103(1-2), 99-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00121-0

Song ZW, Zhang HL, Snyder RL, Anderson FE, Chen F. 2010. Distribution and trends in reference evapotranspiration in the north China plain. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 136(4), 240-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.19434774.0000175

Temesgen B, Eching S, Davidoff B, Frame K. 2005. Comparison of some reference evapotranspiration equations for California. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 131(1), 73-84, http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)07339437(2005)131:1(73)

Thomas A. 2000.Spatial and temporal characteristics of potential evapotranspiration trends over China. International Journal of Climatology 20(4), 381-396.

Thornthwaite CW. 1948.An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review 38, 55-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/210739

Trajkovic S, Kolakovic S. 2009. Estimating reference evapotranspiration using limited weather data. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 135(4), 443-449, http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.19434774.0000094

UNEP.2007. Global Environment Outlook (GEO-4). United Nations Environment Programme Nairobi, Kenya. http://pardee.du.edu/sites/default/files/GEO4_Report_Full_en.pdf

Yoder RE, Odhiambo LO, Wright WC. 2005. Evaluation of methods for estimating daily reference crop evapotranspiration at a site in the humid southeast United States. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 21(2), 197-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1303/2013.18153