Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | April 1, 2022

| Download 7

Relative abundance and percent bottom cover of benthic lifeforms in the marine protected area of barangay poblacion, Kauswagan Lanao del Norte, Philippines

Angelo A. Responte, Olga M. Nuneza, Cil Andrew A. Echavez, Renz G. Bali-Os, Nico P. Oñate, Manuelito John T. Gordo, Jofel A. Batutay, Mark Henli

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.20(4), 163-170, April 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.4.163-170


IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


This study was conducted to establish baseline informations on the relative abundance and the percent bottom cover of existing lifeforms of scleractinian corals in the Marine Protected Area of sitio Kauswagan, Brgy. Poblacion, Lanao del Norte., Philippines. The coral reef was assessed using digital photo-transect technique. Acropora lifeforms include branching with relative abundance (RA) of 20%, submassive 10% and digitate 70%. Montipora digitata (Acroporidae)was the most abundant digitate coral in the MPA. Non-Acropora lifeforms include branching with abundance of 38.7%, submassive 24.3%, massive 23.7%, encrusting 6.13%, foliose 0.8%, Millepora 0.8%, mushroom 5.33% and Heliopora 0.27%.The RA of branching lifeforms are 20% and 38.7% in Acropora and Non-Acropora categories respectively while RA of non-branching massive and submassive lifeforms are higher and account for 80% and 41.33% in Acropora and non-Acropora categories respectively. Massive and submassive lifeforms are slow growing, however they withstand strong wave action during storms. The low RA of algae associated with dead corals of 4.79% maybe due to the grazing activities of herbivorous fishes in the reef. Sponges, the most abundant fauna can possibly limit growth and cause death to corals due to poor nutrient and oxygen supply secondary to obstructed water flow and limited sunlight to the coral colony. The high abundance of dead coral and rubble indicated that the reef was exposed to man-made damaging threats as well as to the effects of natural calamities. Non-Acropora lifeforms constitute the highest percentage bottom cover of 32.7%. This is followed by dead corals 22.11% and abiotic lifeforms 13.51%. Acropora has a significantly low bottom cover of 17.21%.


Copyright © 2022
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Relative abundance and percent bottom cover of benthic lifeforms in the marine protected area of barangay poblacion, Kauswagan Lanao del Norte, Philippines

Ackiss AS, Pardede S, Crandall ED, Ablan-Lagman M, Carmen A, Barber PH, Carpenter KE. 2013. Marine Ecology Progress Series 480, 185-197. DOI: 10.3354/meps10199.

Bagnato S, Linsley BK, Howe SS, Wellington GM, Salinge J. 2004. Evaluating the use of the massive coral Diploastrea heliopora for paleoclimate reconstruction. Paleoceanography 19.

Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nystrmm. 2004. Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429, 827-833.

Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A. 2011. Reefs at risk revisited; World Resources Institute: Washington DC, USA.

Carricart-Ganivet JP, Cabanillas-Teran N, Cruz-Ortega I, Blanchon P. 2012. Sensitivity of calcification to thermal stress varies among genera of massive reef-building corals. PLoS ONE

Cleguer A, Grech C, Carrigue H, Marsh. 2015. Spatial mismatch between marine protected areas and dugongs in New Caledonia.Biological Conservation 184, 154-162.

Damassa TD, Cole JE, Barnett HR, Ault TR, McClanahan TR2006. Enhanced multidecadal climate variability in the seventeenth century from coral isotope records in the western Indian Ocean. Paleoceanography 21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029 /2005PA001217.

Elizalde-Rendon EM, Horta-Puga G, Gonzalez-Diaz P, Carricart-Ganivet JP. 2010. Growth characteristics of the reef-building coral Porites astreoidies under different environmental conditions in the western Atlantic. Coral Reefs 29, 607-614.

Elliff CI, Silva IR. 2017. Coral reefs as the first line of defense: Shoreline protection in face of climate change. Marine Environmental Research 127, 148-154.

Ferrario F, Beck MW, Storlazzi CD, Micheli F, Shepard CC, Airoldi L. 2014. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation. Nature Communications. 5(3794). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4794.

Gallacher N, Simmonds H, Fellowes N, Brown N, Gill W, Clark C, Biggs and Rodwell LD. 2016. Coral cover percentage for sustainable marine protected area management in Tidung Island. Journal of Environmental. Management 183, 280-293.

Gallop SL, Young IR, Ranasingh R, Durrant TH, Haigh ID. 2014. The large-scale influence of the Great barrier Reef matrix on wave attenuation. Coral Reefs 33, 1167-1178.

Harpeni E, David AL. 2011. Life history studies of Montipora digitata in Pioneer Bay, North Queensland, Australia. Marine Biology 15, 72-81.

Heyward AJ, Collins JD. 1985. Growth and sexual reproduction in the scleractinian coral Montipora digitata (Dana). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36, 441-6.

Hughes TP, Szmant AM, Steneck R. 1999. Algal blooms on coral reefs: What are the causes? Limnology Oceanography 44, 1583-1586.

Lapointe BE. 1999. Simultaneous top-down and bottom-up forces control macroalgal blooms on coral reefs. Limnology Oceanography 44, 1586-92.

Lirman D. 2000. Fragmentation in the branching coral Acropora palmata (Lamarck): growth, survivorship, and reproduction of colonies and fragments. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 251(1), 41-57.

Lough JM, Barnes DJ, Devereux MJ. 1999. Variability in growth characteristics of massive Porites on the great barrier reef. CRC Reef Research Centre Technical Report 28, 95 pp.

Mada R, Maga Rizmaadi, Johannes Riter, Siti Fatimah, Riyan Rifaldi, Arditho Yoga, Fikri Ranadhan, Ambariyanto Ambariyanto. 2018. Community structure of coral reefs in Saebius Island, Sumenep District, East Java. E3S eb of Conferences 31, 08013.

Miller MW. 1998. Coral/seaweed competition and control of reef community structure. Oceanography Marine Biology Annual Review 36, 65-96.

Munasik and Siringoringo RM, Ilmu Kelautan. 2011. (Indonesian JoUrnal of Marine Science) 16(1), 49-58 (in Bahasa).

Odum EP. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology. 3rd edition. Toppan Company, Ltd.

Osborne K, Oxley WG. 1997. Sampling benthic communities using video transects. In: English C. Wilkinson C., Baker V (eds). Survey manual for tropical marine resources. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville pp 363-376.

Piquero AS, Delan GG, Rica RLV. 2013.Coral lifeform structure in selected marine protected areas in Southern Cebu. Tropical Technology Journal 13, 1-7.

Rogers JS, Monismith SG, Koweek DA, Dunbar RB. 2015. Wave dynamics of a Pacific atoll with high frictional effects. Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans 121, 350-67. https:// doi.org/ 10.1002 /2015jCO11170.

Saptarini D, Mukhtasor & Inneke F, Rumengan M. 2017. Growth rate of two species branched Acropora in the area of discharged power plant cooling water. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol.46 07), pp 1327-1332.

Shinn EA. 1966. Coral growth rate, an environmental indicator. Journal of Paleontology 40, 233-240.

Toda T, Okashita T, Maekawa T. 2007. Community structure of coral reefs around Peninsular Malaysia. J of Ocean 63, 113-123.

Tunnicliffe V. 1981. Breakage and propagation of the stony coral Acropora cervicornis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 4, 2427-31.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background