Response of maize (Zea mays L.) against aqueous extracts of Diodia scandens and Croton hirtus weed species

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2018
Views (359) Download (24)

Response of maize (Zea mays L.) against aqueous extracts of Diodia scandens and Croton hirtus weed species

Dan David Quee, Johnny Ernest Norman, Musa Decius Saffa
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.13( 2), 63-70, August 2018.
Certificate: IJAAR 2018 [Generate Certificate]


The response of maize against Diodia scandens and Croton hirtus aqueous extracts were carried out under laboratory conditions. The importance of this study was to create consciousness in maize farmers about the allelopathic effect of Diodia scandens and Croton hirtus, if not properly controlled will cause economic losses in maize production. The phytotoxic properties of these weeds can also be used as a tool for controlling weeds in crops as the technology is easily transferable to farmers in low-input maize farming systems. The experiment consisted of six concentration levels and two aqueous extracts, laid out as a 2 × 6 factorial arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replicates. The aqueous extracts showed considerable inhibitions with increase in concentration on germination percentage, number of seedling growth, root and shoot lengths, and seedling dry biomass compared with distilled water treated control. The results acquired proved that the degree of retardation in all growth parameters appeared to be more pronounced in maize seeds treated with Croton hirtus aqueous extracts. Statistical analysis (P < 0.05) revealed that there were significant differences in germination %, number of seedling growth, root and shoot lengths of maize treated with different concentrations of both aqueous extracts when compared to the values obtained from the control experiment. While other concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 50 grams) in the seedling dry biomass showed no significant difference between both aqueous extracts. Field trials are suggested for further clarifications of allelopathic activity of Diodia scandens and Croton hirtus on maize.


Al-Watban A, Salama, HMH. 2012. Physiological effects of allelopathic activity of Artemisia monosperma on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). International Research Journal of Plant Science 3(8), 158-163.

Anjum T, Bajwa R (2010) Sunflower phytochemicals adversely affect wheat yield. Natural Product Research 24, 825–837.

Asgharipour MR, Armin M. 2010. Inhibitory effects of Sorghum halepens root and leaf extracts on germination and early seedling growth of widely used medicinal plants. Advances in Environmental Biology 4 (2), 316-324.

Batish DR, Singh HP, Kohli RK, Kaur S, Saxena DB, Yadav S. 2007. Assessment of parthenin against some weeds. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 62c, 367-372.

Bukhsh MAAHA, Ahmad R, Cheema ZA, Ghafoor A. 2008. Production potential of three maize hybrids as influenced by varying plant density. Pakistan journal of agricultural sciences.45, 413-417.

Chandra S, Mallick MA, Prasad C. 2011. Hormetic impact of Achyranthes aspera L. extracts on seed and seedling traits of Vicia faba L. Columban Journal of life Sciences 2(1)2, 87-91.

Farooq M, Wahid A, Basra SMA, Din IU. 2009a. Improving water relations and gas exchange with brassinosteroids in rice under drought stress. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science.195, 262–269.

International Monetary Fund. 2011. Sierra Leone: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report, 2008-2010. International Monetary Fund Country Report  11, 95.

Khaliq A, Matloob A, Khan MB, Tanveer A. 2013. Differential suppression of rice weeds by allelopathic plant aqueous extracts. Planta Daninha, 31(1), 21-28.

Komal AS. 2011. “Allelopathic influence of aqueous extracts of Cassia occidentalis L. Mon, Triticum aestivum L. Life Science Leaflets, 18, 723–725, 2011

Majeed A, Chaudhry Z, Muhammad Z. 2012. Allelopathic assessment of fresh aqueous extracts of Chenopodium album L. for growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 44(1), 165-167.

Mansaray AS, Gogra AB, Massaquoi AS,Borsuah JF. 2015. The Recharge Potential of Groundwater in the Mokonde Community in Southern Sierra Leone. Natural Resources. 06(11), 2015, Article ID: 61149, 10 pages

MemonSQ, Zakria M, Mari GR, Nawaz MH, Khan MZ. 2011. Effect of tillage methods and fertilizer levels on maize production. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 48(2), 115-117, 2011.

Mousavi SA, Tavakkolfshari R, Asadi A, Gharineh MH. 2011. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaf stem and root of sorghum bicolor on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Natural and Biological Science. 3, 114-118.

Mulatu W, Gezahegn B, Solomon T. 2009. Allelopathic effects of an invasive alien weed Parthenium hysterophorus L. compost on lettuce germination and growth. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 4(11), 1325-1330.

Mupangwa W, Twomlow S, Walker S, Hove L. 2007. Effect of minimum tillage and mulching on maize (Zea mays L.) 3 yield and water content of clayey and sandy soils. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 32, 1127-1134.

Nazim G, Shabbir A, Bajwa R, Bano S. 2005. “Allelopathic effects of Neem (Azadiracta indica) on germination and mycorhizal status of Parthenium hysterophorus, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Weed Science Conference Abstracts, p.29, 2005.

Oyun MB. 2006. “Allelopathic potentials of Gliricidia sepium and Acacaia auriculiformis on the germination and seedling vigour of maize (Zea mays L.),” The American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 1(3), 44–47, 2006.

Randhawa MA, Khan MAJ, Khan NH, Asif M. 2009. Influence of Trianthema portulacastrum infestation and plant spacing on the yield and quality of maize grain. -International Journal of Agriculture Biology 11(2), 225-227.

Sajjad H, Sadar S, Khalid S, Jamal A, Qayyum A, Ahmad Z. 2007. Allelopathic potential of Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) on germination and seedling characters of some major cereal crops and their associated grassy weeds. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(4), 1145-1153.

Salam MA, Morokuma M, Teruya T, Suenaga K, Kato-Noguchi H. 2009. Isolation and identification of a potent allelopathic substance in Bangladesh rice. Plant Growth Regulation, 58(2), 137–140, 2009.

Sisodia S, Siddiqui MB. 2009. Allelopathic potential of rhizosphere soil of Croton bonplandianum on growth and establishment of some crop and weed plants. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(5), 461-467.

Turk MA, Shatnaw MK, Tawaha AM. 2003. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of black mustard on germination and growth of alfalfa. Weed Biology and Management. 3, 37-40.

Zimdahl RL. 2007. Fundamentals of weed science. 3. Ed. London: Academic Press, 2007. 666 p.