Review of research on Dendrobium sonia-28, a hybrid from Orchidacea family and mutation as somaclonal variation

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/06/2017
Views (335) Download (13)

Review of research on Dendrobium sonia-28, a hybrid from Orchidacea family and mutation as somaclonal variation

Raheleh Dehgahi, Alireza Joniyas
Int. J. Biosci.10( 6), 29-47, June 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Dendrobium sonia-28 is an important orchid hybrid in the Malaysian flower industry for its flowering recurrence and dense inflorescences which currently facing serious production problems due fungal diseases, especially caused by Fusarium proliferatum. To overcome this impediment, one of the strategies being pursued is by the production of new somaclonal variants via induced mutation.


Afrasiab H, Iqbal J. 2010. In vitro techniques and mutagenesis for the genetic improvement of potato cvs Desiree and Diamant. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 1629-1637.

Agrios GN. 2005. Plant pathology. 5th eds. Elsevier Acad Press. Burlington. Mass, EU. 251-262.

Ahloowalia B, Maluszynski M. 2001. Induced mutations–A new paradigm in plant breeding. Euphytica 118, 167-173.

Ahmad Z, Ariffin S, Ramii RAA, Basiran MN, Hassan AA. 2010. Mutation breeding of Dendrobium orchids for insect resistance. 7th RnD Seminar, Research and Development Seminar; Bangi (Malaysia); 12-15 Oct 2010.

Ahmed KZ, Mesterhazy A, Bartok T, Sagi F. 1996. In vitro techniques for selecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for Fusarium-resistance. II. Culture filtrate technique and inheritance of Fusarium-resistance in the somaclones. Euphytica. 91, 341-349.

Ahmed Z, Akhter F, Haque MS, Banu H, Rahman MM, Faruquzzaman A. 2001. Novel micropropagation system. Journal of Biological Sciences 11, 1106-1111.

Al-Oudat M. 1990. Effect of low dose gamma irradiation on onion yield: large scale application. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana) 6, 173-174.

Andronova EV, Kulikov PV, Filippov EG, Vasil’eva VE, Batygina TB. 2000. Problems and Perspectives in Seed Reproduction of Orchids from Temperate Zone In Vitro, Embriologiya tsvetkovykh rastenii. Terminologiya i kontseptsii. T. 3. Sistemy reproduktsii (Embryology of Flowering Plants, Terminology and Concepts, vol. 3, Systems of Reproduction), Batygina, T.B., Ed., St. Petersburg: Mir i semya, 2000, 513–524.

Antony J, Jeyanthi J, Chan LK, Rathinam X, Sinniah UR, Subramaniam S. 2010. Preliminary study on cryopreservation of Dendrobium Bobby Messina protocorm-like bodies by vitrification. African Journal of Biotechnology 9,7063-7070.

Arditti J. 1984. An history of orchid hybridization,  seed germination and tissue culture. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 89, 359-381.

Arditti J. 1990. Lewis Knudson (1884-1958): His science, his times, and his legacy. Lindleyana.5, 1-79.

ArdittiJ. 1992. Fundamentals of orchid biology. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc. 467 – 520.

Arditti J. 2010. Plenary presentation: history of orchid propagation.Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology.18, 171–174.

Arditti J, Pridgeon A. 2013. Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives,VII: Springer Science & Business Media. 381 pages.

Azman A, Mhiri C, Grandbastien M, Tam S. 2014. Transposable elements and the detection of somaclonal variation in plant tissue culture. Malaysian Applied Biology 43, 1-12.

Bairu MW, Aremu AO, Van Staden J. 2011. Somaclonal variation in plants: causes and detection methods. Plant Growth Regulation.63, 147-173.

Bektaş E, Cüce M, Sökmen A. 2013. In vitro germination, protocorm formation, and plantlet development of Orchis coriophora (Orchidaceae), a naturally growing orchid species in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 37, 336-342.

Bhojwani SS. 2012. Plant tissue culture: applications and limitations (Vol. 19): Elsevier.

Bhojwani SS, Dantu PK. 2013. Somaclonal variation. Plant Tissue Culture: An Introductory Text. Springer. 141-154.

Borzouei A, Kafi M, Khazaei H, Naseriyan B, Majdabadi A. 2010. Effects of gamma radiation on germination and physiological aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 2281-2290.

Brar D, Jain S. 1998. Somaclonal variation: mechanism and applications in crop improvement. Chapter: Somaclonal variation and induced mutations in crop improvement. Springer. 15-37.

Broertjes C, Van Harten A. 2013. Applied mutation breeding for vegetatively propagated crops: Elsevier.

Brown D, Thorpe T. 1995. Crop improvement through tissue culture. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.11, 409-415.

Butenko RG. 1999. Biology of higher plant cells cultured in vitro and biotechnology on their basis: the Manual. M.: FBK-Press. 160 pages.

Chahal G, Gosal S. 2002. Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding. Alpha Science International Ltd: Oxford. 399-412.

Chang CC, Ku AF, Tseng YY, Yang WB, Fang JM, Wong CH.2010. 6, 8-Di-C-glycosyl flavonoids from Dendrobium huoshanense. Journal of Natural Products.73, 229-232.

Chase MW, Cameron KM, Freudenstein JV, Pridgeon AM, Salazar G, Berg C, Schuiteman A. 2015. An updated classification of Orchidaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 177, 151-174.

Chattopadhyay P, Banerjee N, Chaudhary B. 2012. Genetic characterization of selected medicinal Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) species using molecular markers. Research Journal of Biology 2, 117-125.

Ching L, Antony J, Poobathy R, Subramaniam S. 2012. Encapsulation-vitrification of Dendrobium sonia-28 supported by histology. Plant Omics. 5, 345–350.

Chugh S, Guha S, Rao IU. 2009. Micropropagation of orchids: a review on the potential of different explants. Scientia Horticulturae 122, 507-520.

Cribb PJ, Kell SP, Dixon KW, Barrett RL. 2003. Orchid conservation: a global perspective. Orchid conservation. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, 1-24.

Da Silva JT. 2013. Orchids: advances in tissue culture, genetics, phytochemistry and transgenic biotechnology. Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology 7,1-52.

Datta SK.  1997. Ornamental Plants. Role of mutation. Daya Publishing House, Delhi, 1-9

Debnath M, Malik C, Bisen P. 2006. Micropropagation: a tool for the production of high quality plant-based medicines. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 7, 33-49.

Dehgahi R, Zakaria L, Joniyas A, Subramaniam S. 2014. Fusarium proliferatum culture filtrate sensitivity of Dendrobium sonia-28’s PLBs derived regenerated plantlets. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 10, 241-248.

Dehgahi R, Zakaria L, Mohamad A, Joniyas A, Subramaniam S. 2015. Effects of fusaric acid treatment on the protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28. Protoplasma 15, 1-10.

Dehgahi R, Subramaniam S, Zakaria L, Joniyas A, Beiki Firouzjahi F, Haghnama K, Razinataj M. 2015. Review of Research on Fungal Pathogen Attack and Plant Defense Mechanism against Pathogen. International Journal of Scientific Research in Agricultural Sciences 2, 197-208.

Drake JW, Charlesworth B, Charlesworth D,  Crow JF. 1998. Rates of spontaneous mutation. Genetics 148, 1667-1686.

Dressler RL. 1981. The orchids. Natural history and classification. Harvard University Press, Harvard.

Duncan R. 1997. Tissue culture-induced variation and crop improvement. Advances in Agronomy 58, 201–240.

El-Beltagi HS, Ahmed OK, El-Desouky W. 2011. Effect of low doses γ-irradiation on oxidative stress and secondary metabolites production of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) callus culture. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.80, 968-976.

Engelmann F. 2011. Use of biotechnologies for the conservation of plant biodiversity. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant.47, 5-16.

Esmaiel NM, Al-Doss A, Barakat M. 2012. In vitro selection for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi and detection of genetic polymorphism via RAPD analysis in carnation. Phytochemistry 6, 3997-4004.

Fadelah A. 2004. Selection of miniature Dendrobium orchids as potential potted plants. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science 32,1-8.

Fadelah A. 2007. Selection of yellow Dendrobium orchid flowers as potential cut flower hybrids. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science 35,9-20.

Fishbein L. 2012. Chemical mutagens:Environmental effects on Biological systems, Elsevier. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Report of the expert consultation on floriculture development in Asia. Kunming, China, 7 – 9 January 2010. Available:

Fu S, Yang M, Fei Y, Tan F, Ren Z, Yan B, Zhang H, Tang Z. 2013. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines. PLoS One, 8, e70483.

Fulzele DP, Satdive R, Kamble S, Singh S, Singh S. 2015. Improvement of anticancer drug camptothecin production by gamma irradiation on callus cultures of Nothapodytes foetida. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Allied Sciences. 4, 19-27.

Gao X, Yang D, Cao D, Ao M, Sui X, Wang Q, Wang L. 2010. In vitro micropropagation of Freesia hybrida and the assessment of genetic and epigenetic stability in regenerated plantlets. Journal of Plant Growth Regulator 29,257-267.

Geras’ kin S, Evseeva T, Oudalova A. 2013. Effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides in plant populations. Journal of Environmental radioactivity 121, 22-32.

Godo T, Komori M, Nakaoki E, Yukawa T, Miyoshi K. 2010. Germination of mature seeds of Calanthe tricarinata Lindl., an endangered terrestrial orchid, by asymbiotic culture in vitro. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant 46, 323-328.

Gupta SK. 2011. Technological Innovations in Major World Oil Crops, 1, Breeding (Vol. 1): Springer Science & Business Media.

Haines R. 1994. Biotechnology in forest tree improvement with special reference to developing countries: FAO.

Hamir NA, Nor LM, Sulaiman H, Sandrang AK. 2008. The prospect of exporting Malaysian temperate cut flowers by sea shipment to Economy and Technology Management 3, 75-83.

Hirano T, Godo T, Mii M, Ishikawa K. 2005. Cryopreservation of immature seeds of Bletilla striata by vitrification. Plant Cell Reports 23, 534-539.

Hirano T, Godo T, Miyoshi K, Ishikawa K, Ishikawa M, Mii M. 2009. Cryopreservation and low-temperature storage of seeds of Phaius tankervilleae. Plant Biotechnology Reports 3, 103-109.

Hsieh YS, Chien C, Liao SK, Liao SF, Hung WT, Yang WB, Lin CC, Cheng TJ, Chang CC, Fang JM, Wong CH. 2008. Structure and bioactivity of the polysaccharides in medicinal plant Dendrobium huoshanense. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 16, 6054-6068.

Ishikawa K, Harata K, Mii M, Sakai A, Yoshimatsu K, Shimomura K. 1997. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryos of a Japanese terrestrial orchid (Bletilla striata) by vitrification. Plant Cell Reports 16, 754-757.

Israeli Y, Lahav E, Reuveni O. 1995. In vitro culture of bananas Bananas and plantains, Springer. 147-178.

Ivannikov RV. 2003. Possible directions of Laelia Lindl. (Orchidaceae Juss.) seedling development on the initial ontomorphogenesis stages (2003). In Vitro Biology Vestnic 7, 75–78.

Jain N, Li Y, Zhang L, Meneni SR, Cho BP. 2007. Probing the sequence effects on Nar I-Induced-2 frameshift mutagenesis by dynamic 19F NMR, UV, and CD Spectroscopy. Biochemistry 46, 13310-13321.

Jain SM. 2001. Tissue culture-derived variation in crop improvement. Euphytica 118, 153-166.

Jain SM. 2010. Mutagenesis in crop improvement under the climate change. Romanian Biotechnological Letters.15, 88-106.

Jain SM. 2012. In vitro mutagenesis for improving date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 24,400-407.

Jain SM. 2013. Date palm improvement with innovative technologies. Paper presented at the Regional Workshop on the Improvement of the Dates Value Chain in the Near East and North Africa Region Kuwait, 9-12 December 2013.

Jain SM, Brar DS, Ahloowalia B. 1998. Somaclonal variation and induced mutations in crop improvement 32, Springer Science & Business Media.

Japan Flower Trade Association. 2009. Orchids in Japan market. Susumu, S. Retrieved from Orchids%20in%20Japan%20Market.pdf

Jezek Z. 2003. The complete encyclopedia of orchids, Rebo International, b. v., Lisse, Netherlands.

Kaeppler SM, Kaeppler HF, Rhee Y. 2000. Epigenetic aspects of somaclonal variation in plants. Plant Molecular Biology 43, 179-188.

Karp A. 1994. Origins, causes and uses of variation in plant tissue cultures Plant cell and tissue culture. Springer:139-151.

Kaur A, Sandhu JS. 2015. High throughput in vitro micropropagation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) from spindle leaf roll segments: Cost analysis for agri-business industry. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 120, 339-350.

Kauth PJ, Dutra D, Johnson TR, Stewart SL, Kane ME, Vendrame W. 2008. Techniques and applications of in vitro orchid seed germination. Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology: advances and topical issues 5,375-391.

Ketema S. 1997. Tef-Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.) Trotter. IPGRI, Rome.

Khosravi A, Kadir M, Kadzemin S, Zaman, F,  De Silva AE. 2009. RAPD analysis of colchicine induced variation of the Dendrobium Serdang beauty. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 1455–1465.

Khosravi A, Kadir M, Kazemin S, Zaman F, De Silva AE. 2008. Establishment of a plant regeneration system from callus of Dendrobium cv. Serdang Beauty. African Journal of Biotechnology 7, 4093-4099.

Kikuchi OK. 2000. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 57, 555-557.

Kim JH, Baek MH, Chung BY, Wi SG, Kim JS. 2004. Alterations in the photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant machineries of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings from gamma-irradiated seeds. Journal of Plant Biology. 47, 314-321.

Kiong ALP, Lai AG, Hussein S, Harun AR.2008. Physiological responses of Orthosiphon stamineus plantlets to gamma irradiation. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 2, 135-149.

Kovacs E, Keresztes A. 2002. Effect of gamma and UV-B/C radiation on plant cells. Micron.33, 199-210.

Kovalchuk I, Abramov V, Pogribny I, Kovalchuk O. 2004. Molecular aspects of plant adaptation to life in the Chernobyl zone. Plant Physiology 135, 357-363. http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/​10.​1104.

Kovalchuk O, Burke P, Arkhipov A, Kuchma N, James SJ, Kovalchuk I, Pogribny I. 2003. Genome hypermethylation in Pinus silvestris of Chernobyl—a mechanism for radiation adaptation? Mutation Research/ Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 529, 13-20.

Kuehnle AR. 2006. Orchids Flower Breeding and Genetics. Springer. 539-560

Kuehnle AR. 2007.Orchids, Dendrobium. In: Anderson NO (ed.) Flower breeding and genetics. Berlin, Springer. 539–560.

Kumar A, Arya H. 2009. Plant Tissue Culture and Moelcular Markers: IK International Pvt Ltd.

Kumar G, Srivastava N. 2011. Gamma ray induced cytomorphological variations in Sesbania cannabina poir. Cytologia 76, 375-380.

Landey RB. 2013. Influence of micropropagation through somatic embryogenesis on somaclonal variation in coffee (Coffea arabica): assessment of variations at the phenotypical, cytological, genetic and epigenetic level. Université Montpellier II-Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc; Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico).

Larkin PJ, Scowcroft WR. 1981. Somaclonal variation—a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 60, 197-214.

Lee BH. 2015. Fundamentals of food biotechnology, second edition, John Wiley & Sons.

Lee YI, Hsu ST, Yeung EC. 2013. Orchid protocorm-like bodies are somatic embryos. American Journal of Botany.100, 2121-2131.

Leitch IJ, Beaulieu JM, Chase MW, Leitch AR, Fay MF. 2010. Genome size dynamics and evolution in monocots. Review Article. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Journal of  Botany 2010, 1-18.

Lestari EG. 2006. Review: In vitro selection and somaclonal variation for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Biodiversitas.7, 297-301.

Leva A, Rinaldi L, Petruccelli R. 2012. Somaclonal variation in tissue culture: a case study with olive. Recent Advances in Plant In Vitro Culture.

Majeed A, Muhammad Z. 2010. Gamma irradiation effects on some growth parameters of Lepidium sativum L. World Journal of Fungal and Plant Biology 1, 8-11.

Maluszynski M, Ahloowalia BS, Sigurbjörnsson B. 1995. Application of in vivo and in vitro mutation techniques for crop improvement, The Methodology of Plant Genetic Manipulation: Criteria for Decision Making. Springer. 303-315.

Mandal A, Chakrabarty D, Datta S. 2000. Application of in vitro techniques in mutation breeding of chrysanthemum. Plant,Cell,Tissue and Organ culture 60, 33-38.

Maneerattanarungroj P, Bunnag S, Monthatong M. 2007. In vitro conservation of Cleisostoma areitinum (Rchb. f.) Garay, rare Thai orchid species by an encapsulation-dehydration method. Asian Journal of Plant Science 6, 1235-1240.

Manners V, Kumaria S, Tandon P. 2013. SPAR methods revealed high genetic diversity within populations and high gene flow of Vanda coerulea Griff ex Lindl (Blue Vanda), an endangered orchid species. Gene 519, 91-97.

Martin K, Madassery J. 2006. Rapid in vitro propagation of Dendrobium hybrids through direct shoot formation from foliar explants, and protocorm-like bodies. Scientia Horticulturae.108, 95-99.

Mba C. 2013. Induced mutations unleash the potentials of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Agronomy 3, 200-231.

McKendrick S, Leake J, Read D. 2000. Symbiotic germination and development of myco‐heterotrophic plants in nature: transfer of carbon from ectomycorrhizal Salix repens and Betula pendula to the orchid Corallorhiza trifida through shared hyphal connections. New Phytologist 145, 539-548.

Medina III, Tano S, Amano E. 2005. Mutation breeding manual. Forum for NuclearCooperation in Asia (FNCA). 178 pages.

Mohanty P, Paul S, Das MC, Kumaria S, Tandon P. 2012. A simple and efficient protocol for the mass propagation of Cymbidium mastersii: an ornamental orchid of Northeast India. AoB plant. 2012, 1-8.

Møller AP, Mousseau TA. 2011. Efficiency of bio-indicators for low-level radiation under field conditions. Ecological Indicators 11, 424-430.

Mujar EK, Sidik NJ, Sulong NA, Jaapar SS, Othman MH. 2014. Effect of low gamma radiation and methyl jasmonate on Vanilla planifoliatissue culture. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 27,163-167.

Nagatomi S. 2001. 4.8 New Approaches for Effective Mutation Induction in Gamma field. pp. 68–75. In Seminar on Methodology for Plant Mutation Breeding for Quality Effective Use of Physical/Chemical Mutagens. Hanoi, Vietnam, 9–13 October 2000.

Nagatomi S, Degi K. 2009. Mutation breeding of chrysanthemum by gamma field irradiation and in vitro culture. Induced plant mutations in the genomics era. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 257-257.

Neelakandan AK, Wang K.2012. Recent progress in the understanding of tissue culture-induced genome level changes in plants and potential applications. Plant Cell Reports 31, 597-620.

Nei M. 2013. Mutation-driven evolution,Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nicoletti B. 2003. Number of orchids. The Physics Factbook. An Encyclopedia of Scientific Essays. Available at

Niizeki M, Lu Z. 2003. Somaclonal variation as a toole for plant breeding and genetics. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Hirosaki University. 1–17.

Nikishina T, Popova E, Vakhrameeva M, Varlygina T, Kolomeitseva G, Burov AV, Popovich EA, Shirokov AI, Shumilov VY, Popov AS. 2007. Cryopreservation of seeds and protocorms of rare temperate orchids. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 54, 121-127.

Nikishina TV, Popov AS, Kolomeitseva GL, Golovkin BN. 2001. Effect of cryoconservation on seed germination of rare tropical orchids. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 48, 810–815.

Nwauzoma A, Jaja E. 2013. A review of somaclonal variation in plantain (Musa spp): mechanisms and applications. Journal of Applied Biosciences 67,5252-5260.

PandeyA, Mukerji KG. 2006. Biological control of plant diseases: CRC Press.

Peredo EL, Revilla MÁ, Arroyo-García R. 2006. Assessment of genetic and epigenetic variation in hop plants regenerated from sequential subcultures of organogenic calli. Journal of Plant Physiology 163, 1071-1079.

Perera D, Barnes DJ, Baldwin BS, Reichert NA. 2015. Mutagenesis of in vitro cultures of Miscanthus× giganteus cultivar Freedom and detecting polymorphisms of regenerated plants using ISSR markers. Industrial Crops and Products.65,110-116.

Piagnani MC, Maffi D, Rossoni M, Chiozzotto R. 2008. Morphological and physiological behaviour of sweet cherry ‘somaclone’HS plants in field. Euphytica 160, 165-173.

Pongsrila P, Chomnawang P, Srisamoot N, Wiriyaampaiwong P. 2014. DNA finger printing analysis of fourteen species of orchids using ISSR technique. KKU Research Journal 19, 210-216.

Poobathy R, Sinniah UR, Rathinam X, Subramaniam S. 2013a. Histology and scanning electron microscopy observations of cryopreserved protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28. Turkish Journal of Biology 37, 191-198.

Poobathy R, Xavier R, Sinniah UR, Subramaniam S. 2013b. Molecular stability of protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28 after encapsulation-dehydration and vitrification. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7, 189-195.

Predieri S. 2001. Mutation induction and tissue culture in improving fruits. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 64, 185-210.

Puchooa D. 2004. Comparison of different culture  media for the in vitro culture of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6,884-888.

Puchooa D. 2005. In vitro mutation breeding of Anthurium by gamma radiation. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 7, 11-20.

Qiang GY. 2014. Survivability and plant regeneration studies of a vanda orchid’s non-encapsulated and encapsulated protocorm-like bodies (PLBs). Thesis submitted to Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman.

Razdan MK. 2003b. Production of disease-free plants. In Introduction to plant tissue culture. New York, USA: Science Publishers. 219 pages.

Roychowdhury R, Tah J. 2013. Mutagenesis—A potential approach for crop improvement.Crop Improvement. Springer. 149-187.

Sahijram L, Soneji JR, Bollamma K. 2003. Analyzing somaclonal variation in micropropagated bananas (Musa spp.). In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant. 39, 551-556.

Saiprasad G, Polisetty R. 2003. Propagation of three orchid genera using encapsulated protocorm-like bodies. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant 39,42-48.

Saiprasad G, Raghuveer P, Khetarpal S, Chandra R. 2004. Effect of various polyamines on production of protocorm-like bodies in orchid—Dendrobium ‘sonia’. Scientia Horticulturae100, 161-168.

Sarada C, Jyothi KU, Rao VS, Reddy PV. 2015. Mutagenic sensitivity of Gamma rays, EMS and their combinations on germination and seedling vigour in Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L).International journal of biology, pharmacy and allied sciences. 4,430-438.

Schuiteman A. 2004. Devogelia (Orchidaceae), a new genus from the Moluccas and New Guinea.  Blumea 49, 361-366.

Seaton PT, Hu H, Perner H, Pritchard HW. 2010. Ex situ conservation of orchids in a warming world.The Botanical Review 76, 193-203.

Semal J. 2013. Somaclonal variations and crop improvement (Vol. 20): Springer Science & Business Media.

Sharma SK, Kumaria S, Tandon P, Rao SR. 2011. Single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) reveals inter-and intra-specific natural genetic variation in five species of Cymbidium (Orchidaceae). Gene 483, 54-62.

Shiau YJ, Nalawade SM, Hsia CN, Mulabagal V, Tsay HS.2005. In vitro propagation of the Chinese medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. Ex Lindl., from axenic nodal segments. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant 41, 666-670. DOI:

Shu QY, Forster BP, Nakagawa H, Nakagawa H. 2012. Ion beam radiation mutagenesis. Plant Mutation Breeding And Biotechnology 2012, 99-106.

Skirvin R, Coyner M, Norton M, Motoike S, Gorvin D. 2000. Somaclonal variation: do we know what causes it? AgBiotechNet.2, 1-4.

Skirvin RM, McPheeters KD, Norton M. 1994. Sources and frequency of somaclonal variation. HortScience 29, 1232-1237.

Sorina P, Maria BO, Lazăr A, Ursu C. 2013. The assessment of the variability induced by tissue culture to Cymbidium sp. using RAPD markers. Journal of  Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology. 17, 273- 276.

Supnithi T, Paiboonrat P, Buranarach M, Kawtrakul A, Lekawatana S, Intalak A, Sangtien S, Choptham W. 2011. Ontology based orchid knowledge platform for knowledge services in orchid cluster. In SRII Global Conference (SRII), 2011 Annual (540-549).

Swarts ND, Dixon KW. 2009. Terrestrial orchid conservation in the age of extinction. Annals of Botany 104, 543-556.

Thapa C. 2004. Effect of acute exposure of gamma rays on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus kesiya Gord and P. wallichiana AB Jacks. Nature 2,13-17.

Thorpe TA. 2007. History of plant tissue culture. Molecular Biotechnology 37, 169-180.

Ulukapi K, Nasircilar AG. 2015. Developments of gamma ray application on mutation breeding studies in recent years. international conference on advances in Agricultural, Biological & Environmental Sciences (AABES-2015) July 22-23, 2015 London(UK).

Van Rooyen Orchids Catalogue (2007, 28 December 2007). Hybrids. Dendrobium: Dendrobium Phalaenopsis Hybrids.  Retrieved 17 October, 2011.

Vanyushin BF, Ashapkin VV. 2011. DNA methylation in higher plants: past, present and future. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1809, 360-368.

Vazquez-Tello A, Uozumi T, Hidaka  M,Kobayashi Y, Watanabe H. 1996. Effect of 12C+5 ion beam irradiation on cell viability and plant regeneration in callus, protoplasts and cell suspensions of Lavateva thuringiaca. Plant Cell Reports 16, 46-49.

Vendrame WA, Carvalho V, Dias J. 2007. In vitro germination and seedling development of cryopreserved Dendrobium hybrid mature seeds. Scientia Horticulturae 114, 188-193.

Wi SG, Chung BY, Kim JS, Kim JH, Baek MH, Lee JW, Kim YS. 2007. Effects of gamma irradiation on morphological changes and biological responses in plants. Micron 38, 553-564.

Wickliffe JK, Bickham AM, Rodgers BE, Chesser RK, Phillips CJ, Gaschak SP, Goryanaya JA, Chizhevsky I, Baker RJ. 2003. Exposure to chronic, low‐dose rate γ‐radiation at Chornobyl does not induce point mutations in Big Blue® mice. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 42, 11-18.

Wu CH, Fallini C, Ticozzi N, Keagle PJ, Sapp PC, Piotrowska K, Baron DM. 2012. Mutations in the profilin 1 gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nature 488, 499-503.

Xu L, Najeeb U, Naeem M, Wan G, Jin Z, Khan F, Zhou W. 2012. Technological innovations in major world oil crops. In: Gupta, S.K. (ed.) In vitro mutagenesis and genetic improvement. Volume 2. Springer, New York, NY, USA. 151-173.

Yadav K, Tripathi K, Yadav D, Kumar S, Singh K, Kumar A, Garg K. 2009. In vitro selection and regeneration methods for wheat improvement. Department of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (UP) INDIA, 250110.

Yang H, Chua N. 1990. Isolation and  characterization of genes involved in the pigment  biosynthesis of orchids. In Proceedings of the 13th World Orchid Conference (265 pages).

Yaqoob M, Rashid A. 2001. Induced Mutation Studies in Some Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) wilczek Cultivars. Online Journal of Biological Sciences 1, 805-808.

Yin LL, Poobathy R, James J, Julkifle AL, Subramaniam S. 2011. Preliminary investigation of cryopreservation by encapsulation-dehydration technique on Brassidium Shooting Star orchid hybrid. African Journal of Biotechnology 10, 4665-4672.

Yin M, Hong S. 2009. Cryopreservation of Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. protocorm-like bodies by encapsulation-vitrification. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 98, 179-185.

Yoder JA, Zettler LW,Stewart SL. 2000. Water requirements of terrestrial and epiphytic orchid seeds and seedlings, and evidence for water uptake by means of mycotrophy. Plant Science 156, 145-150.

Yunus MF, AZIZ MA, Kadir MA, Daud SK, Rashid AA.2013. In vitro mutagenesis of Etlingera elatior (Jack) and early detection of mutation using RAPD markers. Turkish Journal of Biology 37, 716-725.

Yusnita Y, Widodo W, Sudarsono S. 2005. In vitro selection of peanut somatic embryos on medium containing culture filtrate of Sclerotium rolfsii and plantlet regeneration. Hayati Journal of Biosciences 12, 50-56.

Zhang TY, Meaney MJ. 2010. Epigenetics and the environmental regulation of the genome and its function. Annual review of Psychology 61, 439-466.

Zhao P, Wu F, Feng FS, Wang WJ. 2008. Protocorm-like body (PLB) formation and plant regeneration from the callus culture of  Dendrobiumcandidum Wall ex Lindl. In Vitro  Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant 44, 178-185.