J. Bio. Env. Sci.15(4), 100-107, October 2019
Molecular tools developed in the past few years provide easy, less laborious means for assigning known and unknown plant taxa. These techniques answer many new evolutionary and taxonomic questions, which were not previously possible with only phenotypic methods. Molecular techniques such as DNA barcoding, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have recently been used for plant diversity studies. This review presents a basic description of different molecular techniques that can be utilized for DNA fingerprinting and molecular diversity analysis of plant species. DNA barcoding uses particular regions of DNA making helping in categorization and recognize unknown species. Researchers now interested to generate DNA barcodes designed for all living organisms and to build up data accessible to public to help in understanding of natural biodiversity of world. Cyclotides are peptides derived from plants with particular head to tail cyclic backbone that have three disulphide bonds by forming a cystine knot. Recent information about DNA barcoding can be used for detection of unidentified biological specimens to a taxonomic group, accurate detection of phytomedicinals, and in the biodiversity of living organisms.
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