Revitalizing legumes and root crops in lahar affected areas of Zambales, Philippines: A comprehensive socio-economic, production and marketing study

Paper Details

Research Paper 14/06/2023
Views (273) Download (36)

Revitalizing legumes and root crops in lahar affected areas of Zambales, Philippines: A comprehensive socio-economic, production and marketing study


The study aimed to revitalize legumes and root crops farming in the lahar-affected areas of Zambales, Philippines. The study conducted a comprehensive assessment of legumes and root crops farming in the lahar-affected areas of Zambales, Philippines, with a focus on peanut, cassava, mungbean, and legumes production. Data was collected from 186 farmers in selected towns, revealing that a majority of respondents were male, married, and aged 51 and above. Notably, formal education was not a strict requirement for engaging in root crop farming, and most farmers had small to medium-sized families and owned farms ranging from 0.6 to 1 hectare. Farming experience varied, with the highest representation among those aged 26 and above. Fertilizer usage ranged, but the majority of farmers used 4 to 5 bags. Weather conditions and pest/insect problems emerged as the main challenges in root crop farming. Regarding marketing, wholesale selling was the predominant approach, with traders being the main source of market and price information. Farmers primarily relied on personal capital to fund their crops. Marketing problems included low prices, delayed payments, oversupply, unstable prices, limited buyers, and price fluctuations. Statistical analysis highlighted positive correlations between socio-economic factors (age, education, family size, farm size, and farming experience) and increased production of cassava and sweet potato. To revitalize legumes and root crops farming in the lahar-affected areas of Zambales, several recommendations were proposed. Targeted training programs focusing on climate-resilient agricultural practices and pest management should be developed. Efforts to improve market access and reduce dependence on traders through collective marketing initiatives and value-added processing are essential. Investment in agricultural infrastructure, such as irrigation systems, is crucial to mitigate weather-related challenges. Policymakers should explore opportunities for providing financial support and credit facilities to farmers to boost productivity. Lastly, fostering collaboration among government agencies, research institutions, and farmer organizations will aid in formulating sustainable region-specific strategies. These findings and recommendations offer valuable insights for developing relevant policies and programs to support the agricultural sector in the lahar-affected regions of Zambales.


Asfaw S, Shiferaw B, Simtowe F, Lipper L. 2012. Impact of modern agricultural technologies on smallholder welfare: Evidence from Tanzania and Ethiopia. Food Policy 37(3), 283-295.

Barrett CB, Reardon T, Webb P. 2012. Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications. Food Policy 67-81.

Dar WD, Ghate R, Murgai R. 2016. Agriculture in India: Historical trends and future prospects. Journal of International Development 28(2), 111-127.

Dorosh P, Thurlow J, Yu B. 2009. A general equilibrium analysis of the impact of climate change on agriculture in Egypt. Economic Development and Cultural Change 57(4), 801-828.

Ellis F, Kutengule M, Nyasulu A. 2017. Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Malawi. World Development 28(11), 1961-1979.

Gbegbelegbe S, De Groote H, Andrade RV, Olanrewaju AS. 2012. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative storage technologies for improving maize marketing and storage in Nigeria. Food Policy 37(6), 634-641.

Guzman, Alvarado, Bas-ong, Magulod Jr. 2021. Establishing baseline agriculture performance and rural development indicators in Cagayan Province; IJB, V19, N6, December p138-149.

Kilic T, Palacios-Lopez A, Goldstein M. 2017. Caught in a productivity trap: A distributional perspective on gender differences in Malawian agriculture. World Development 91, 464-480.

Lobell DB, Schlenker W, Costa-Roberts J. 2014. Climate trends and global crop production since 1980. Science 333(6042), 616-620.

Madarang, Perciano, Magulod Jr. 2021. Cacao growers profiling in one municipality of Region 2 Philippines: Basis for sustainable development program; IJB, V19, N6, December P129-137.

Magulod, Bautista, Gerardo, Madarang, Cortez, Llaneza. 2022. Profiling of school + home cacao project adopters as basis for community-based participatory cacao processing enterprise model; IJB, V21, N4, October p110-120.

Nakano K, Saito O, Uzawa K. 2006. Effect of volcanic ash fall on sugarcane productivity in Tenerife, Spain. Field Crops Research 98(2-3), 123-128.

Reardon T, Berdegué J, Escobar G. 2019. Rural nonfarm income and its impact on agriculture: Fresh evidence from seven countries. Food Policy 31(3), 5-13.

Swinnen J, Vandeplas A, Maertens M, D’Haese M. 2019. Agriculture, value chains, and collective action in transforming economies. World Development 122, 1-10.

Ulimwengu JM, Sanyal P, Roberts C. 2013. Does agricultural growth reduce poverty for sustainable poverty reduction? IFPRI Discussion Paper 01286.