J. Bio. Env. Sci.10(6), 141-148, June 2017
The deposition of heavy metals on aquatic ecosystems pose serious threat to humans as these toxic substances may find their way via food chain. The current technologies for heavy metal removal are expensive hence this study was conducted to explore the phytoremediation potential, specifically on rhizofiltration capacity, of plants and the degree of contamination in stagnant and flowing water ecosystems. The study was conducted both in the riparian zones of lentic and lotic freshwater ecosystems of Bukidnon. Lake Pinamaloy represents the lentic while the Pulangui River represents the lotic ecosystems. All vascular plants within the 1x1m2 sampling plots along the one (1) kilometer transect were identified. The most abundant macrophyte species was determined through quantitative analysis. Subsequently, the shoot and root samples of the most dominant species were collected and subjected to analysis for lead accumulation. Macrophyte samples were analyzed via atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).Results show that Fimbristylis littoralis Gaud., the most dominant species in the lentic ecosystem, was able to accumulate lead in the roots at 0.21 mg/kg while Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. accumulated an average of 2.70 mg/kg in the lotic ecosystem implying rhizofiltration potentials of these species. This may suggest that these two macrophyte species are bioaccumulators of lead that could reduce lead contamination through rhizofiltration.
Agunbiade FO, Oluowolabi BI, Adebowale KO. 2009. Phytoremediation potential of Eichornia crassipes in metal contaminated coastal water. Bioresource Technology, 100, 4521–4526. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.04.011
Baker AJM, Reeves RD, Hajar AS. 1994. Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in British populations of the metallophyte Thlaspi caerulescens J. and C. Presl (Brassicaceae). New Phytologist, 127, 61- 68. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1994.tb04259.x
Cunningham SD, Anderson TA, Schwab AP, Hsu FC. 1996. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with organic pollutants. Advance Agronomy, 56, 55–114.
Reales-Alfaro JG, Trujillo-Daza LT, Arzuaga-Lindado G, Castaño-Peláez HI, Polo-Córdoba ÁD. 2013. Acid hydrolysis of water hyacinth to obtain fermentable sugars. Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro, 5(2), 101-111.
Deng DM, Shu WS, Zhang J, Zou HL, Ye ZH, Wong MH, Lin Z. 2007. Zinc and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in populations of Sedum alfredii. Environmental Pollution, 147, 381-386. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.05.024
Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Protected Areas Wildlife Bureau (DENR-PAWB). 2006. Framework for Philippine Plant Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.
Drzewiecka K,Borowiak K, Mleczek M, Zawada I, Goliński P. 2010. Cadmium and Lead Accumulation in Two Littoral Plants of Five Lakes in Poznan, Poland. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia 52(2), 59–68. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10182-010-0024-6
Ghosh M, Singh SP. 2005. A Review on Phytoremediation of Heavy metals and Utilization of its by Products. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 3(1), 1-18.
Landmeyer JF. 2011. Introduction to phytoremediation of contaminated groundwater Springer, ISBN 978-94-0007-1956-9. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-004-1957-6
Liu J, Dong Y, Xu H, Wang D. Xu J. 2007. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plants species in constructed wetland. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147(3), 947-953. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.125
Mganga N, Manoko MLK, Rulangaranga ZK. 2011. Classification of plants according to their heavy metal content around north Mara gold mine, Tanzania: Implication for phytoremediation. Tanzania Journal of Science 37, 109-199.
Nwaichi EO, Frac M, Nwoha PA, Eragbor P. 2015. Enhanced phytoremediation of crude oil-polluted soil by four plant species: Effect of inorganic and organic bioaugumentation. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 17, 1253–1261.
Rai PK. 2008. Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluent using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata. Intentional Journal of Phytoremediation, 10, 430–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226510802100606
Rawat SK, Singh RK, Singh RP. 2012. Remediation of nitrite contamination in ground and surface waters using aquatic macrophytes. Journal of Environmental Biology 33(1), 51-56.
Rotkittikhun R, Kruatrachue M, Chaiyarat R, Ngernsansaruay C, Pokethitiyook P, Paijitprapaporn A, Baker AJM. 2006. Uptake and accumulation of lead by plants from the Bo Ngam lead mine area in Thailand. Environmental Pollution, 144, 681-688.
Singh D, Tiwari A, Gupta R. 2012. Phytoremediation of lead from wastewater using aquatic plants. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(1), 1-11.
Soni HB, Thomas S. 2015. Biotransportation of heavy metals in Eichhornia crassipes (MART.) Solms. using X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Current World Environment 10(1), 09-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.10.1.02
Stoltz E, Greger M. 2002. Accumulation properties of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by four wetland plant species growing on submerged mine tailings. Environmental and Experimental Botany 47, 271–280.
Sutcliffe JF. 1962. Mineral salts absorption in plants. Pergamon Press, London, England. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(02)00002-3
Toledo-Bruno AG, Aribal LG, Lustria MGM, Marin RA. 2016. Phytoremediation potential of mangrove species at Pangasihan Mangrove forest reserve in Mindanao, Philippines. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 9(1), 142-149.