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Risk assessment of toxic elements in vegetables, soil and water grown in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan

Atta Hussain Rind, Mushtaque Ali Jakhrani, Sahrish Memon, Shahid Ali Jakhrani

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.16(1), 25-36, January 2020


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The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk of toxic elements in vegetables, associated soil and ground water samples collected from the surroundings of Larkana city, Sindh, Pakistan. The level of four toxic elements, such as chromium, cadmium, copper, and arsenic were determined in vegetables, soil and groundwater. The toxic elements were measured by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after microwave digestion system. The severity of toxic elements is evaluated through estimated daily intake, bioaccumulation factor and target hazard quotient. It was revealed that the estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient of all four examined trace and toxic elements Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, and Arsenic in vegetables samples were within the limits. Cadmium in groundwater was found 0.005mgL-1 which is more than Word Health Organization tolerable permissible limits. The order of Targeted hazard quotient and Estimated daily intake values of the examined toxic elements were Cd < Cr < Cu < As and As < Cd < Cr < Cu. It is revealed that the targeted hazard quotient and estimated daily intake in all vegetables samples were less than 1. It indicates that there is no serious impact of these toxic elements to the local inhabitants.


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Risk assessment of toxic elements in vegetables, soil and water grown in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan

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