Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen fixing bacteria on legume growth under various environmental stresses

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Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen fixing bacteria on legume growth under various environmental stresses

Abdoulaye Soumare, Tahir Diop, Anicet Manga, Ibrahima Ndoye
Int. J. Biosci.7( 4), 31-46, October 2015.
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Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia are two important plant symbionts. Rhizobia are known for fixing nitrogen inside legume root nodules while Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide plants with nutrients and other benefits. AM fungi are ubiquitous soil microorganisms and establish a symbiotic relationship with more than 80% of plant species of natural ecosystems while rhizobia association is more specific and involved almost leguminous plants. The symbiosis between legumes-Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) improves plant growth and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress. This suggests that it is possible to use rhizobia and mycorrhizal to mitigate detrimental impacts of these stresses on terrestrial ecosystem health and agricultural productivity. This will lead to accelerate the natural process of re-vegetation in decertified semiarid ecosystem. AMF and rhizobia interactions in legumes host are complex and our understanding of their impact on plant growth is far from complete. In fact Legumes can host AMF and N2-fixing bacteria at the same time. However the two symbioses are rarely studied together because of the obligate biotrophy of arbuscular myccorhizal fungi. In this review, we look into the behavior of three symbiotic associations under stress conditions: drought, salt, pathogens, low minerals and polluted soils with heavy metals. Mutualistic symbioses confer host fitness benefits that can result in stress-tolerance. Based on the analyzed documents, mineral nutrient improvement seems to be the common mechanism under all environmental stresses. The trends of this thematic area will be outlined, from genetically modified microorganisms in order to improve classical screening to found efficient symbiotic micro organisms.

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