Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.4(2), 30-39, February 2014
During the present study Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus cereus isolated from rhizospheric soil of halophytic weeds of Khewra salt range were used as bioinoculant on wheat. Aqueous solution of tryptophan was added to the rhizospheric soil @1ug/L after seed germination. Experiment was conducted at Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad in pots under sterilized condition. Electrical conductivity (EC) was maintained to 3.7 dsm-1 by applying 150mM NaCl twice (after 7 and 14d of seed germination). PGPR inoculation significantly decreased EC, pH, SAR, Na, and Cl contents and improved K, Ca, Mg, Fe, P, NO3 and organic matter contents of the rhizospheric soil. Tryptophan addition assisted the PGPR to further decrease the EC, SAR and improved nutrients uptake and growth. Tryptophan augmented the PGPR-induced increase in fresh weight, chlorophyll, proline and sugar contents. Superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities of leaves of inoculated plants were also higher in the presence of tryptophan. Greater production of abscisic acid and Indole acetic acid were recorded in leaves of PGPR inoculated plants and addition of tryptophan augmented the phytohormone production in leaves of treated plants. Inoculation of PGPR alone and with tryptophan positively affected the yield of crop by improving seed establishment and number of seeds/spike.
Arshad M, Hussain A, Shakoor A. 1995. Effect of soil applied L–tryptophan on growth and chemical composition of cotton, Journal Of Plant Nutrtion 18, 317-329.
Ali NM, Yusof HM, Long K, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Beh BK, Koh SP, Abdullah MP, Noorjahan NB. 2013. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Germinated and fermented Mung Bean on Ethanol-Mediated Liver Damage. Bio Med Research International 9, 693-713.
Ashrafuzzaman M, Hossen FA, Ismail MR, Hoque MA, Islam MZ, Shahidullah SM, Meon S. 2009. Efficiency of plant growthpromoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 1247-1252.
Barazani O, Friedman J. 2000. Effect of exogenously applied L–tryptophan on allelochemical activity of plant – growth promotion rhizobacteria. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26, 343–349.
Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. 1971. Superoxide dismutase: improved assay and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry 44, 276-287.
Baset-Mia MA, Shamsuddin ZH, Wahab Z, Marziah M. 2010. Rhizobacteria as bioenhancer and biofertilizer for growth and yield of banana (Musa spp. cv. ‘Berangan’). Science Horticulture Amsterdam 126(2), 80-87.
Bates LS, Waldern RP, Teare ID. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water status studies. Plant and Soil 39, 205–207.
Bull CT, Weller DM, Thomashow LS. 1991. Relationship between root colonization and suppression of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 2-79. Phytopathology 81, 954-959.
Cakmakci RF, Aydın A, Sahin F. 2006. Growth promotion of plants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria under green house and two different field soil conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemisty 38, 1482-1487.
Cakmakci RF, Dönmez MF, Erdoğan U. 2007. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on barley seedling growth, nutrient uptake, some soil properties, and bacterial counts. Turkish Journal 0f Agriculture and Forestry 31, 189-199.
Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugar and related substances, Annals of Chemistry, 28, 350-356.
Etesami H, Alikhani HA, Akbari A. 2009. Evaluation of plant growth hormones production (IAA) ability by Iranian soils rhizobial strains and effects of superior strains application on wheat growth indexes. World Applied Sciences Journal 6, 1576–1584.
Frankenberger WT, Arshad M. 1995. Phytohormones in soil. Microbial production and function. In: Marcel Dekker, ed. New York: 1-13.
Frankenberger WT, Brunner W. 1983. Methods of detection of auxin indole acetic acid in soil by high performance liquid chromatography. Soil Science Society of American Journal 47, 237-241.
Frankenberger WT, Arshad M. 1991. Yield response of watermelon and muskmelon to L-tryptophan applied to soil. Horticultural Science 26, 35-37.
Garcia C, Hernandez T. 1996. Influence of salinity on biological and biochemical activity of calciorthid soil. Plant and Soil 178, 225-263.
Gray EJ, Smith DL. 2005. Intracellular and extracellular PGPR, commonalities and distinctions in the plant–bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37, 395–412.
Hasnain S, Sabri AN. 1996. Growth stimulation of Triticum aestivum seedlings under Cr- stresses by non rhizospheric pseudomonad strains. Environmental Pollution 3, 265-73.
Idris EE, Iglesias DJ, Talon M, Borriss R. 2007. Tryptophan-dependent production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) affects level of plant growth promotion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. Molecular Plant Microbe Interaction 20, 619-626.
Joo HS, Kumar CG, Park GC, Paik SR, Chang CS. 2004. Bleach-resistant alkaline protease produced by a Bacillus sp. isolated from the Korean polychaeta, Periserrula leucophryna. Process Biochemistry 39, 1441–1447.
Kettner J, Doerffling K. 1995. Biosynthesis and metabolism of abscisic acid in tomato leaves infected with Botrytis cinerea. Planta 196, 627-634.
Kohler J, Caravaca F, Carrasco L, Roldan A. 2006. Contribution of Pseudomonas medocina and glomus intraradices to aggregate stabilization and promotion of biological properties in rhizosphere soil of lettuce plant under field condition. Soil Use and Management 22, 245-252.
Meloni DA, Oliva MA, Ruiz HA, Martinez CA. 2001. Contribution of proline and inorganic solutes to osmotic adjustment in cotton under salt stress. Journal Of Plant Nutrition 24, 599-612.
Patten CL, Glick BR. 2002. Role of Pseudomonas putida indole acetic acid in development of the host plant root system. Appllied Environmental Microbiology 68, 3745-3801.
Prado FE, Boero C, Gallardo M, Gonzalez JA. 2000. Effect of NaCl on germination,growth, and soluble sugar content in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Seeds. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 41, 27-34.
Reitmeier RF. 1943. Semi microanalysis of saline soil solutions. In: Indus. And Engin. Chem Analyt, ed. 15, 393-402.
Rekha PD, Lai Wa, Arun AB, Young CC. 2007. Effect of free and encapsulated Pseudomonas putida CC-FR2-4 and Bacillus subtilus CC-pg 104 on plant growth under gnotobiotic condition. Bio research Technology 98: 447-451.
Saharan BS, Nehra V. 2011. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: A critical review. Life Science and Medicine Research 21, 1-30.
Sarwar M, Frankenberger WT. 1994. Tryptophan dependent biosynthesis of auxins in soil. Plant and Soil 160, 97-104.
Shafi M, Bakhat J, Khan MJ, Khan MA, Anwar S. 2010. Effect of salinity on yield and ion accumulation of wheat genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 4113–4121.
Singh JS, Pandey VC, Singh DP. 2011. Efficient soil microorganisms: a new dimension for sustainable agriculture and environmental development. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 140, 339– 353.
Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J, Remans R. 2007. Indole-3-acetic acid in microbial and microorganism plant signaling. Federation of European Microbiological Societies Microbiology Review 31, 425-448.
Tilak KVBR, Ranganayaki N, Manoharachari C. 2006. Synergistic effects of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria and Rhizobium on nodulation and nitrogen fixation by pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan). European Journal of Soil Sciences 57, 67–71.
Tien TM, Gaskin MH, Hubbel DH. 1979. Plant growth substances produced byAzospirillum brasilense and their effect on the growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L.). Applied Environmental Microbiology 37, 1016–1024.
Upadhyay SK, Singh JS, Saxena AK, Singh DP. 2012. Impact of PGPR inoculation on growth and antioxidants status of wheat plant under saline condition. Plant Biology 14, 605-611.
Vetter JL, Steinberg MP, Nelson AI.1958. Quantitive Determination of peroxidase in sweet corn. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 6, 39-41.
Yasmin F, Othman R, Sijam K, Saad MS. 2007. Effect of PGPR inoculation on growth and yield of Sweet potato. Journal of Biological Sciences 7(2), 421-424.
Walkley A. 1947. A critical examination of a rapid method for determining organic carbon in soils: Effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sciences 63, 251-263.
Walkley A, Black IA. 1934. An examination of degtiareff method for determining soil organic matter and and a proposed modification of chromic acid titration method. Soil Sciences 37, 29-37.
Zahir ZA, Naveed M, Zafar MI, Rehman HS, Arshad M, Khalid M. 2007. Evaluation of composted organic waste enriched with Nitrogen and L-tryptophan for improving growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(5), 1739-1749.