Saving the heirloom Corn varieties of Kalinga Province

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Research Paper 16/05/2023
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Saving the heirloom Corn varieties of Kalinga Province

Rex Saliw-an Langngag, Santos B. Sicnawa, Irene S. Calsiyao, Jelmer Cesar P. Calagui, Jameson Lopez, Noel B. Estilong
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.22( 5), 10-21, May 2023.
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Abstract

Heirloom corn is one of the distinctive and significant cultivars grown in Kalinga Province. Factors such as shifting to GM corn, reduction of corn area, entry of OPV varieties, and the age of farmers impact heirloom corn varieties in Kalinga. This study looked into the ex-situ characterization of heirloom corn varieties and the effect of fertilizer on the growth and yield of heirloom corn. The genetic base of heirloom corn consisted of twenty-four accessions in ex-situ characterization with eighty-four descriptors. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of white and purple heirloom corn were determined. The cultivars possess a unique qualitative character to distinguish their traits. The ex-situ characterization shows a slight variation in both quantitative and qualitative data for the cultivars tested. Field trials of heirloom corn planted in the two experiment areas showed no significant difference in the variables tested except in the plant height of heirloom corn under the Tabuk City condition. Sole ammonium phosphate (16-20-0) significantly affected the weight of the kernel and the yield of purple corn. The combined Ultimax organic and ammonium phosphate fertilizer did not yield significantly. Ammonium phosphate application is more effective in a sloped area than organic fertilizer. This phenomenon may be due to the faster release of inorganic fertilizer than organic fertilizer, which has a slow release; moreover, combining inorganic and organic fertilizers significantly improved heirloom corn. Farmers in Kalinga province must continuously cultivate and bequeath these cultivars to the young generation to preserve heirloom corn germplasm.

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