Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.7(5), 1-13, November 2015
To screen rice cultivars cultivated in Sri Lanka for salt tolerance at seedling stage, factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Twenty two rice cultivars were tested against five salt levels (0, 4, 8, 12 and, 24 dSm-1). Using shoot, root parameters and its percentage reduction with salt levels and sodium to potassium ratio, grouping of rice cultivars and their significances were tested by using cluster analysis. Four groups were identified as; highly tolerant, tolerant, susceptible and very susceptible. ANOVA and correlation analysis were performed to check the significant differences among cultivars with in clusters and correlation between tested variables, respectively. Values of all tested variables decreased with increasing salt levels in all tested cultivars except for sodium to potassium ratio in shoots. Percentage reduction increased with increasing salt levels for shoot height, shoot dry weight, root length, root dry weight and root surface area and showed significant differences among the cultivars at salt level of 24 dSm-1. Both osmotic and toxic effect reduced shoot and root growth by inhibiting the water absorption by roots and caused leaf death, respectively. Among the cultivated rice cultivars, based on shoot and root parameters and sodium to potassium ratio in shoots, Pachaperumal, Periavellai, At 303, Adakari, Bg 406 and CO 10 categorized as highly tolerant group while Bg 250, At 353, At 362, Modaikarupan, H4, Bg 304 and Morungan were grouped as tolerant. Also Bg 352 and At 308 found susceptible and Bg 360 seems very susceptible.
Ahmed ME, Khawla EM, Elshiekh AI, Nagla NS. 2012. Impact of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of three sorghum (Sorghum biolorL. Moench) cultivars: Science and Technology. 2(2), 16-20.
Akbari GS, Mohammad A, Yousefzadeh S. 2007. Effect of auxin and salt stress (NaCl) on seed germination of wheat cultivars (Triticumaestivum L.). Pakistan J. Biol. Sci 10(15), 2557-2561.
Ali Y, Aslam Z, Ashraf MY, Tahir GR. 2004. Effect of salinity on chlorophyll concentration, leaf area, yield and yield components of rice genotypes grown under saline environments. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech 1, 229-234.
Alian A, Altman A, Hever B. 2000. Genotypic difference in salinity and waterstress tolerance of fresh market tomato cultivars. Plant Sci 152, 59-65.
Asch F, Dingkuhn M, Dörffling K. 1997a. Physiological stresses of irrigated rice caused by soil salinity in the Sahel. In: K.M. Miezan, M.C.S. Wopereis, M. Dingkuhn, J. Deckers& T.F. Randolph (Eds.), Irrigated Rice in the Sahel, Prospects for Sustainable Development pp. 247–273.
Balasooriya I. 1987. Development of acid sulphate soils and inland salinity conditions in coastal low lying rice lands in Nilwala-Ganga Project stage 1. (Kiralakele) Matara. Newsletter, Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka.
Bohra, JS, Dorffling, K. 1993. Potassium nutrition of rice (Oryzasativa L.) cultivarsunder NaCl salinity. Plant Soil 152, 299-303.
Chen Z, Newman I, Zhou M, Mendham N, Zhang G, Shabala S. 2005. Screening plants for salt tolerance by measuring K flux: a case study for barley. Plant Cell Environ 28, 1230-1246.
Cramer GR, Epstein E, Läuchli A. 1989. Na-Ca interactions in barley seedlings: relationship to ion transport and growth, Plant Cell Environ 12, 551-558.
David WM. 2004. Build a Hydroponic Culture System: Horticulture and the Science of Plants- Youth Adventure Program Department of Horticultural Sciences. Texas A&M University.
Dutt SK, Bal AR. 1985. Effect of salinity on rice dry matter accumulation and sodium uptake. Int Rice Res Lett 10, 26.
FAO 2008. Food and Agriculture Organization. Global network on integrated soil management for sustainable use of salt-effect soils. Rome: FAO Land and Plant Nutrition Management Service.
Flowers TJ, Yeo AR. 1986. Ion relation of plants under drought and salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 13, 75–91.
Flowers TJ. 2004. Improving crop salt tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany, v. 55, n. 396, 307-319.
Gilbert GA, Wilson C, Madore MA. 1997. Root-zone salinity alters raffinose oligosaccharide metabolism and transport in coleus. Plant Physiol. 115, 1267-1276
Gorham J, Wyn Jones RG, McDonnell E. 1985. Some mechanisms of salt tolerance in crop plants. Plant Soil 89, 15-40.
GovindaRaju P, Balakrishanan K. 2002. Effect of salinity in certain exzyme activity, physiological traits and yield of rice cultivars. Madras Agricultural Journal 89(1-3), 67-69.
Greenway H, Munns R. 1980. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 31, 149–190.
Hanson AD, Hits ED. 1982. Metabolic responses of mesophytes to plant water deficits. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 33, 163–203.
Heenan DP, Lewin LG McCaffery DW. 1988. Salinity tolerance in rice cultivars at different growth stages. Aust. J. Exp. Agric 28, 343-349.
IRRI. 2006. Module 4. Stress and disease tolerance. Breeding for salt tolerance in rice.
IRRl. 1967. Annual report.Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute P. 308.
IRRl. 1997. Screening rice for salinity tolerance. Discussion paper series No: 22.
Jamil M, DeogBae L, Kwang Yong J, Ashraf M, Sheong Chun L, EuiShik R. 2006. Effect of salt (NaCl) stress on germination and early seedling growth of four vegetables species. Journal of Central European Agriculture 7(2), 273-282.
Jeganathan N, Adamplan A. 1980. Studies on sodicity on the rice growing grumusols of Murukkan. Tropical Agriculturist 138, 117-124.
Läuchli A, Epstein E. 1990. Plant responses to saline and sodic conditions. In K.K. Tanji (ed).Agricultural salinity assessment and management. ASCE manuals and reports on engineering practice No 71, 113–137.
Lee S, Kim J, Son JS, Nam J, Jeong DH, Lee K, Jang S, Yoo J, Lee J, Lee DY. 2003. Systematic reverse genetic screening of T-DNA tagged genes in rice for functional genomic analyses: MADS-box genes as a test case.Plant Cell Physiol 44, 1403–1411.
Levigneron A, Lopez F, Vassuyt G, Berthomieu P, Fourcroy P, Cassedelbart F. 1995. Plants towards salt stress. Cahiers Agricultures, 4, 263- 273.
Lutts S, Kinet JM, Bouharmont J. 1995. Changes in plant response to NaCl during development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. J. Exp. Bot 46, 1843-1852.
Mass EV, Poss JA. 1989. Salt sensitivity of wheat at various growth stages. Irrigation Science 10, 29-40.
Munns R, Greenway H, Delane R, Gibbs J. 1982. Ion concentration and carbohydrate status of the elongating leaf tissue of Hordeumvulgaregrowing at high external NaCl II cause of the growth reduction. Journal of experimental Botany 33, 574 – 583.
Munns R, Husain S, Rivelli AR, James RA, Condon AG, Lindsay MP, Lagudah ES, Schachtman DP, Hare RA. 2002. Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant & Soil, 247, 93-105.
Munns R. 2003. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress: Plant Cell Environ 25, 239-250.
Neumann PM. 2008. Coping mechanisms for crop plants indrought-prone environments. Ann Bot 101, 901–907.
Pandey UK, Srivastava RDL. 1991. Leaf potassium as an index of salt tolerance in paddy. National Academy Science Letters 14, 161-164.
Qadar A. 1988. Potassium status of the rice shoots as Index for salt tolerance. Ind J Plant Physiol 31, 388–393.
Rahman MS, Miyake Hand Taheoka Y. 2001. Effect of sodium chloride salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of rice (Oryzasativa L.). Pak J Biol Sci 4(3), 351-355.
Rajadurai, S. 2003. Rainfed rice cultivation in Jaffna district. Smart prints, Jaffna, pp 1-5.
Rajarathinam S, Koodalingam K, Raja VDG. 1988. Effect of potassium and sodium in rice for tolerance of soil salinity. J Potassium Res 4, 174-178.
Rengel Z. 1992. The role of calcium in salt toxicity. Plant Cell Environ 15, 625–632.
Roy SK, Patra SK, Sarkar KK. 2002. Studies on the effect of salinity stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) at seedling stage. J. Interacademicia 6(3), 254-259.
Seydi AB. 2003. Determination of the salt tolerance of some barley genotypes and the characteristics affecting tolerance. Turk J. Agric 27, 253-260.
Sirisena DN, Herath HMA. 2009. Productivity enhancement in saline paddy fields in AngiththamkulamYaya in Sri Lanka: Proceedings of the 9thInternational Conference of East and Southeast Asia Federation of Soil Science Societies. Seoul, Korea. pp. 507 − 508.
Soledad GM, Libia ITT, Fernando CGM, Camila C, David E, VandBraulio EHC. 2012. Growth, photosynthetic activity and potassium and sodium concentration in rice plants under salt stress. Acta Sci., Agron V 34, No 3.
Tester M, Davenport R. 2003. Na+ transport and Na+ tolerance in higher plants. Annals of Botany 91(5), 503-527.
UNDP. 2012. Success stories. Improving paddy production through adaptation Technology (March).
Volkmar KM, Hu Y, Steppuhn H. 1998. Physiological responses to plant salinity: A Review. Can. J. Plant Sci 78, 19-27.
Yeo AR, Lee KS, Izard P, Boursier PJ, Flowers TJ. 1991. Journal of Experimental Botany 42, 881-889.
Yoshida S, Forno DA, Cock JH, Gomez KA. 1976. Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. pp. 61-66.
Zeng L, Shannon MC, Grieve CM. 2002. Evaluation of salt tolerance in rice genotypes by multiple agronomic parameters. Euphytica: 12.