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Research Paper | November 1, 2012

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Seasonal variation in bioavailability of some toxic metals in waste dump soils of Makurdi, North-Central Nigeria

Raymond A. Wuana, Peter A. Adie, Immaculate N. Asegh

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.2(11), 7-17, November 2012

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Abstract

Seasonal changes in the bioavailable forms of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in waste dump soils of a rapidly expanding city were assessed by sequential chemical extractions. Three major waste dumps at Apir Mechanic Village (AMV), Benue Industrial Layout (BIL) and Integrated Waste Dump (IWD) all located in Makurdi, north-central Nigeria, were selected for the study. Composite soil samples were collected from each waste dump during dry (January) and wet (July) seasons in 2011; characterized and subjected to the modified Tessier et al’s sequential extraction to separate the metals into operationally defined pools with varying bioavailability – water-soluble (F1), exchangeable (F2), carbonate-bound (F3), Fe, Mn and Al oxide-bound (F4), organic matter-bound (F5) and residual (F6) in soil. The soils were essentially mineral soils with sandy clay loam texture, moderately contaminated with Cd (1.36 – 2.98 mg kg-1), Cu (2.70 – 10.86 mg kg-1) and Pb (32.26 – 74.56 mg kg-1). Metal forms and their partitioning in the soils varied markedly among the waste dumps possibly due to different anthropogenic sources of these metals coupled with seasonal effects. The metals were more bioavailable in the wet than dry season. Across the waste dumps metal bioavailability followed the order: BIL > IWD > AMV. Depending on the metal, mobility factors, Mf were high enough and appeared to vary in the order: Cd (20 ≤ Mf (%) ≤ 65) > Pb (37 ≤ Mf (%) ≤ 50) > Cu (7 ≤ Mf (%) ≤ 37) suggesting the potential long-term risk of these elements (especially Cd) in the soils.

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Seasonal variation in bioavailability of some toxic metals in waste dump soils of Makurdi, North-Central Nigeria

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