Seasonal variation in bioavailability of some toxic metals in waste dump soils of Makurdi, North-Central Nigeria

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2012
Views (308) Download

Seasonal variation in bioavailability of some toxic metals in waste dump soils of Makurdi, North-Central Nigeria

Raymond A. Wuana, Peter A. Adie, Immaculate N. Asegh
J. Bio. Env. Sci.2( 11), 7-17, November 2012.
Certificate: JBES 2012 [Generate Certificate]


Seasonal changes in the bioavailable forms of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in waste dump soils of a rapidly expanding city were assessed by sequential chemical extractions. Three major waste dumps at Apir Mechanic Village (AMV), Benue Industrial Layout (BIL) and Integrated Waste Dump (IWD) all located in Makurdi, north-central Nigeria, were selected for the study. Composite soil samples were collected from each waste dump during dry (January) and wet (July) seasons in 2011; characterized and subjected to the modified Tessier et al’s sequential extraction to separate the metals into operationally defined pools with varying bioavailability – water-soluble (F1), exchangeable (F2), carbonate-bound (F3), Fe, Mn and Al oxide-bound (F4), organic matter-bound (F5) and residual (F6) in soil. The soils were essentially mineral soils with sandy clay loam texture, moderately contaminated with Cd (1.36 – 2.98 mg kg-1), Cu (2.70 – 10.86 mg kg-1) and Pb (32.26 – 74.56 mg kg-1). Metal forms and their partitioning in the soils varied markedly among the waste dumps possibly due to different anthropogenic sources of these metals coupled with seasonal effects. The metals were more bioavailable in the wet than dry season. Across the waste dumps metal bioavailability followed the order: BIL > IWD > AMV. Depending on the metal, mobility factors, Mf were high enough and appeared to vary in the order: Cd (20 ≤ Mf (%) ≤ 65) > Pb (37 ≤ Mf (%) ≤ 50) > Cu (7 ≤ Mf (%) ≤ 37) suggesting the potential long-term risk of these elements (especially Cd) in the soils.


Abdus-Salam   N.   2009.   Assessment   of  heavy metals pollution in dumpsites in Ilorin metropolis. Ethiopian  Journal  of  Environmental  Studies  and Management 1(2), 92-99.

Achi MM, Uzairu A, Gimba CE, Okunola OJ. 2011. Chemical fractionation of heavy metals in soils around the vicinity of automobile mechanic workshops in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology 3(7),184-194.

Bouyoucos GJ. 1962. Improved hydrometer method for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54, 464- 465.

D’amore JJ, Al-abed SR, Scheckel KG, Ryan JA. 2005. Methods of speciation of metals in soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 34(5), 1707-1745.

Eriksson J, Andersson A, Andersson R. 1997. The state of Swedish farmlands. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Report 4778. Stockholm: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency; p. 59.

Golia EE, Tsiropoulos NG, Dimirkou A, Mitsios I. 2007. Distribution of heavy metals of agricultural soils of central Greece using the modified BCR sequential extraction method. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 87(13-14), 1053- 1063.

Hope BK. 2006. An examination of ecological risk assessment and management practices. Environmental International 32, 983-995.

Iwegbue CMA. 2007. Metal fractionation in soil profiles at automobile mechanic waste dumps, Waste Management Research 25(6), 585-593.

Kabala C, Singh BR. 2001. Fractionation and mobility of copper, lead and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. Journal of Environmental Quality 30(2), 485-492.

Kirpichtchikova TA, Manceau A, Spadini L, Panfili F, Marcus MA, Jacquet T. 2006. Speciation and solubility of heavy metals in contaminated soil using X-ray microfluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, chemical extraction, and thermodynamic modeling. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70(9), 2163-2190.

Ma LQ, Rao GN. 1997. Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 26(1), 259-264.

Maiz I, Arambarri I, Garcia R, Millán, E. 2000. Evaluation of heavy metal availability in polluted soils by two sequential extraction procedures using factor analysis. Environmental Pollution 110(2), 3-9.

Maxted AP, Black CR, West HM, Crout NMJ, McGrath SP, Young SD. 2007. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from arable soils amended with sewage sludge using Thlaspi caerulescens:Development of a predictive model. Environmental Pollution 150(3), 363-372.

Morera MT, Echeverría JC, Mazkiarán C, Garrido JJ. 2001. Isotherms and sequential extraction procedures for evaluating sorption and distribution of heavy metals in soils. Environmental Pollution 113(2), 135-144.

Nabulo G, Oryem Origa H, Nasinyama GW, Cole D. 2008. Assessment of Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni contamination in wetland soils and plants in the Lake Victoria basin. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 5(1), 65-74.

National Population Commission NPC. 2006. Census Estimates, Abuja, Nigeria.

Nwachukwu MA, Feng H, Alinnor J. 2010. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soil and their implications within and around mechanic villages. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7(2), 347-358.

Okezie CN. 1985. Geological Map of Nigeria, Div. Geological Survey, Lagos, Nigeria.

Omotunde TO, Adewale OR, Adekemi MB, Olusegun AO, Adeleke AA. 2011. Speciation of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) of some dumpsites soil in Lagos State, Nigeria using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Advances in Applied Sciences Research 2(6), 247-253.

Omuku P, Asiagwu AK, Okeke JJ, Okoye PAC. 2009. Heavy metal speciation patterns in refuse dumpsites of Awka City, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 34(2), 17-23.

Osakwe SA. 2010. Chemical speciation and mobility of some heavy metals in soils around automobile waste dumpsites in Northern Part of Niger Delta, South Central Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 14(4), 123-130.

Rao CRM, Sahuquillo A, Lopez Sanchez JF. 2008. A Review of the different methods applied in Environmental Geochemistry for single and sequential extraction of trace elements in soils and related materials. Water, Air, Soil Pollution 189, 291-333.

Rastmanesh F, Moore F, Keshavarzi B. 2010. Speciation and phytoavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soils in Sarcheshmeh Area, Kerman Province. Iranian Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 85, 515-519.

Salbu B, Krekling T. Oughton H. 1998. Characterization of radioactive particles in the environment. Analyst 123, 843-849.

Schumacher BA. 2002. Methods for the determination of total organic carbon in soils and sediments, USEPA-NCEA-C-1282, EMASC-001, pp.1-21.

Sha’Ato R, Ojanuga AG, Ajayi SO. 2002. Al and Fe sesquioxides dynamism in representative profiles in the Lower Benue Valley, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology 12(1):21-31.

Shiowatana J, McLaren RG, Chanmekha N, Samphao A. 2001. Fractionation of arsenic in soil by a continuous-flow sequential extraction method, Journal of Environmental Quality 30, 1940-1949.

Tessier  A,  Campell  PGC,  Bisson  M.  1979. Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry 51(7), 844-851.

Uba S, Uzairu A, Harrison GFS, Balarabe ML, Okunola OJ. 2008. Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability in dumpsites of Zaria Metropolis,Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(2), 122-130.

Umoren IU, Udoh AP, Udousoro II. 2007. Concentration and chemical speciation for the determination of Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd from refuse dump soils using the optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure. The Environmentalist 27(2), 241-252.

Umoren IU, Udousoro II. 2009. Fractionation of Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni in roadside soils of Uyo, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria using the optimized BCR sequential extraction technique. The Environmentalist 29(3), 280-286.

Ure AM, Quevauviller PH, Muntau H, Griepink B. 1993. Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of Commission of the European Communities. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 51(1-4), 135-151.

Voegelin A, Barmettler K, Kretzschmar R. 2003. Heavy metal release from contaminated soils:Comparison of column leaching and batch extraction results. Journal of Environmental Quality 32, 865-875.

Wuana RA, Okieimen FE, Iorhemen DAT. 2009. Chemical speciation of heavy metals in a spiked soil in the vicinity of the Benue Industrial Layout and assessment of metal uptake by maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 34(1), 5-14.

Wuana RA, Okieimen FE. 2011a. Heavy metals in contaminated soils: A review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecology 2011, 1-20.

Wuana RA, Okieimen FE. 2011b. Evaluation of heavy metal speciation in single and multi-metal contaminated soil by BCR sequential extraction. Nigerian Journal of Applied Sciences 29, 87-102.

Wuana RA, Mbasugh PA, Iorungwa, MS. 2012. Response of Amaranthus hybridus to metal stress and manure amendment in contaminated soil. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 2(10), 7-16.

Yahaya MI, Mohammad S, Abdullahi BK. 2009. Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentration in abattoir dumpsites soil in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 13(4), 9-13.