Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | August 1, 2011

| Download

Seasonal variations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) concentrations in selected surface waters of Enugu State of Nigeria

Chime Charles Chukwuma, Ekanem Edet Joseph, Kabgu James Adagadzu, Ikechukwu Alexander Okorie

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.1(4), 86-93, August 2011


IJB 2011 [Generate Certificate]


Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometric method (FAAS) in Coal Camp, Asata, and Aria rivers found in Enugu urban in eastern Nigeria. The sampling areas were mapped and sites were chosen in the rivers at intervals of 300m. Analyses were done for four years (2005-2008). Physical assessment of the rivers prior to analyses show heavy dumping of metal scraps from a metal works/market (Tinker) village within the area. Results show average concentrations for Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn for the four year period to be 0.21-2.66mg/L, 0.18-3.35mg/L, 0.10-1.50mg/L, and 0.18-2.11mg/L, respectively. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric method (FAAS) was used for the analyses. Tolerance limit test at 95% coverage with 95% confidence revealed that only site-5 was free from pollution with these metals. Site-5 also shows negative correlations with the other sites. Normality assumption was not rejected for all the metals determinations, using Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) test. Undoubtedly, there are strong evidences to believe that the rivers are polluted with Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn metals.


Copyright © 2011
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Seasonal variations of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) concentrations in selected surface waters of Enugu State of Nigeria

Abulude FO, Orungbemi S. 2007. Determination of physicochemical parameter and trace metal contents of drinking water samples in Akure Nigeria. EJEAFche 6(8), 2297 – 2303.

Ademoroti CM. 2002. Standard Methods fro Water and effluents Analysis. Ibadan Nigeria: Foludex Press Ltd., 2-44.

Akueshi EU, Ocheakiti N, Okusebor S. 2003. Levels of some heavy metals in fish from mining lakes on the Jos Plateau. African Journal of Natural Sciences 6, 82-86.

Ali N, Oniye SJ, Balarabe ML, Auta J. 2005. Concentration of Fe, Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb in Makera Drain Kaduna Nig. Chem Class Journal 2, 69-73.

Andronachie C, Xiang Q. 2006. Statistical Analysis of Surface Water Quality Data of Eastern Massachusetts. Geological Society of America-Philadelphia Annual Meeting 38(7), 438.

Bassey SE and Odoh H. 2004. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Waste Water with Polymerized Agric Waste Catex-resin. African Journal of Natural Sciences 7, 1-3.

Dike NI, Oniye SI, Ezealor AU, Ajibola VO. 2005. Some trace elements in the Fadama Soil and Spinach, along River Jakara. Chem. Class Journal 2, 36-40.

Dojlido JR, Best JA. 1993. Chemistry of Water and Water Pollution. New Jersey: Ellis Hardwood Prentice-Hall, 230-282.

Ekanem EJ. 2007. Appreciation of the Environment. Zaria Nigeria: Excel Publishers, 1-56.

Erin C, Mark DE. 2002. A Statistical Examination of Water quality in two-Towa lakes. American journal of undergraduate Research 1(2), 502-530.

Gilroy EJ, Hirsch RM, Cohn TA. 1990. Mean square error of regression – based constitent transport estimates. Wat. Resour. Res. 26(9), 2069-2077.

Khitoliya RK. 2004. Environmental  Pollution. New Delhi: S. Chand and Company Ltd., 6-84.

Kiely G. 1998. Environmental Engineering International edition. New York: MaGraw Hill, 52-146.

Neelima  R,  Dilip  KM.  2005.  Environmental Analysis  and  Instrumentation.  New  Delhi:  A.P.H Publishing Corporation, 12-98.

Nishida N. 2002. Statistical Analysis of water Quality Data of the Oota River system. Bulletin of Faculty of Human Life and Environmental Sciences 8, 13-25.

Nsi EW, Ogori BO. 2005. A survey of water quality in some areas of Makurdi. International Journal of Science & tech (4) 6, 7-11.

Nwaedozie JM. 1998. Determination of heavy metal pollutants in fish sample from River Kaduna. J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria 23, 21-23.

Ogunlaja O, Ogunlaja A. 2007. Physicochemical analysis of water Sources in Ubeji Community and their Histological Impacts on Organs of Albino Mice. Journal of Applied Sciences Environmental Management 11(4), 91 – 94.

Otti RL. 1993. An Introduction to Statistical Methods and data analysis. Belont, California: Duxburg Press, p. 1-51.

Sharma BK. 2005. Environmental Chemistry 10th ed. Meerut, Delhi: Krishna Prakasham Media (p) Ltd., p. 24-167.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background