Sedimentology of pir koh formation exposed at Dholi and Rakhi Gaj, Central Sulaiman Range, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2017
Views (238) Download (10)

Sedimentology of pir koh formation exposed at Dholi and Rakhi Gaj, Central Sulaiman Range, Pakistan

Saif Ur Rehman, Muhammad Ahmad Riaz, Mahboob Ahmed, Muhammad Fahad Ullah, Muhammad Kashif, Faisal Rehman
J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 6), 224-234, December 2022.
Certificate: JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Middle Eocene Pir Koh Formation is well exposed throughout the Sulaiman Range and acts as good hydrocarbon reservoir. In present research, two sections of Pir Koh Formation exposed at Dholi and Rakhi Gaj have been investigated for detailed sedimentological studies to depict the depositional environments and modeling. The formation is mainly composed of off-white to creamy white limestone and marl with black chert at places. Petrographic analyses show that Pir Koh Formation is composed of a rich assemblage of benthic and planktonic foraminifera with minor bioclasts. Four microfacies including Planktonic Wacke-Packstone microfacies, Marl microfacies, Discocyclina-Nummulities Wacke-Packstone Microfacies and Chert microfacies were framed with help of petrographic data. The microfacies analyses and paleoecology of fauna suggest a ramp model for the deposition of Pir Koh Formation and it was deposited over mid ramp to upper slope settings.


Abbas G. 1999. Microfacies, depositional environments, diagenesis and porosity development in Limestone horizons of Kirthar Formation (Middle-Late Eocene) in frontal parts of Sulaiman fold belt and adjoining areas, Pakistan. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted to University of Punjab, Pakistan 1-112.

Afzal J, Asrar MK, Naseer, AS. 1997. Biostratigraphy of the Kirthar Formation (Middle to Late Eocene), Sulaiman Basin, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research 9, 15-33.

Ahsan N, Akhtar S, Chaudhry MN. 1993. Preliminary interpretation of the depositional environment based on microfacies analysis of Pir koh limestone and marl member, Dhar, Taunsa. Pakistan Journal of Geology 1 & 2, 86-96.

Ahsan N, Rehman SU, Shah MM. 2015. Kawagarh Formation (Turonian to Lower Maastrichtian)- A Homoclinal Ramp Deposit in Hazara Basin on Northern Margin of the Indian Plate. In 15th Bathurst meeting, 13-16 July, 2015. University of Edenburgh, England, Abstract book 26.

Akhtar S, Chaudhry MN, Ahsan N, Baloch AQ. 1993. Environment of deposition and Diagenesis of Pirkoh and Marl member near D.G. Khan Cement factory, D.G. Khan, Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of Punjab University 28, 41-49.

Anketell JM, Mriheel IY. 2000. Depositional environment and diagenesis of the Eocene Jdeir Formation, Gabes-Tripoli Basin, Western Offshore, Libya. Journal of Petroleum Geology 23(4), 425-447.

Boggs Jr. S. 2006 Sedimentology and stratigraphy. Pearson Education p.1-662.

Boggs Jr. S. 2009. Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Cambridge University Press p.1-599.

Butt A. 1981. Depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Alps. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research 20, 1-121.

Chaudhry MN, Ahsan N, Akhtar S. 1994. Sedimentology of Pirkoh Limestone at Rakhi Gaj, Sakhi Sarwar, Sulaiman Range, Pakistan. Kashmir Journal of Geology 11, 127-135.

Dickson JAD. 1965. A modified staining technique for carbonates in thin section. Nature 205, 587-587.

Dunham RJ. 1962. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In W. E. Ham, (ed) Classification of Carbonate Rocks. American Association Petroleum Geologists Memoirs 1, 108-121.

Flügel E. 2004. Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks; Analysis, interpretation and application. Springer Verlage, Berline p.1-976.

Gammon PR, James NP, Pisera A. 2000. Eocene spiculites and spongolites in southwestern Australia: not deep, not polar, but shallow and warm. Geology 28(9), 855-858.

Haq BU, Hardenbol J, Vail PR. 1988. Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea level change. In: Wilgus C.K, Hastings BS, Kendall CG, Posamentier HW, Ross CA, Van-Wagoner JC. Eds. Sea level changes: An integrated approach. SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology, Special Publications 42, 71-108.

Hunting Survey Coorporation. 1961. Reconnaissance geology of part of West Pakistan. A Colombo Plan Cooperative Project. Toronto, Canada: Government of Canada p.1-550.

Jaumé SC, Lillie RJ. 1988. Mechanics of the Salt Range‐Potwar Plateau, Pakistan: A fold‐and‐thrust belt underlain by evaporites. Tectonics 7(1), 57-71.

Kadri IB. 1995. Petroleum Geology of Pakistan. 1st edn Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Petroleum Ltd p. 1-275.

Klootwijk CT, Conaghan PJ, Powell CM. 1985. The Himalayan Arc: large-scale continental subduction, oroclinal bending and back-arc spreading. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 75, 167-183.

Klootwijk CT, Nazirullah, R, DeJong KA, Ahmed H. 1981. A palaeomagnetic reconnaissance of northeastern Baluchistan, Pakistan. Journal of Geophysical Research 86, 289-306.

Lawrence RD, Yeats, RS, Khan SH, Farah A, DeJong KA. 1981. Thrust and strike slip fault interaction along the Chaman transform zone, Pakistan. Geological Society of London, Special Publications 9(1), 363-370.

Luterbacher H. 1998. Sequence Stratigraphy and the Limitations of Biostratigraphy in the Marine Paleogene Strata of the Tremp Basin (Central Part of the Southern Pyrenean Foreland Basins, Spain). SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology, special Publications 60, 303-309.

Minster JB, Jordan TH. 1978. Present day plate motions: Journal of Geophysical Research 83, 5331-5354.

Nagappa Y. 1959. Foraminiferal Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous: Eocene Succession in the India-Pakistan-Burma Region. Micropaleontology 5, 145-192.

Nichols G. 2009. Sedimentology and stratigraphy. John Wiley & Sons p. 1-419.

Racey A. 1994. Biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeographic significance of Tertiary nummulitids (foraminifera) from northern Oman. Micropalaeontology and hydrocarbon exploration in the Middle East. Chapman and Hall, London p. 343-370.

Rehman SU, Mahmood K, Ahsan N, Shah MM. 2016. Microfacies and depositional environments of upper cretaceous Kawagarh Formation from Chinali and Thoba sections Northeastern Hazara Basin, lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Journal of Himalayan Earth Science 49(1), 1-16.

Rehman SU. 2009. Microfacies and depositional environments of Kawagarh Formation exposed at Chinali and Khariala, Northwest Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. M.Phil Thesis, University of Punjab, Pakistan p. 1-83.

Rehman SU. 2017. Sedimentology of Turonian-Maastrichtian Kawagarh Formation, Attock Hazara Fold and Thrust Belt, Northwestern Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. PhD Thesis, University of Sargodha, Pakistan p. 1-253.

Sameeni SJ, Ahsan N, Baloch Z. 1994. Micropaleontology of Pirkoh limestone of Eocene Kirthar Formation, Afiband Area, Sulaiman Province, Kashmir Journal of Geology 11, 137-140.

Sarwar G, DeJong KA. 1979. Arcs, oroclines, syntaxes: the curvature of mountain belts in Pakistan. Geodynamics of Pakistan, Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta p. 341-350.

Shah SMI. 1977. Stratigraphy of Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta, Memoir 12, p. 1-138.

Shah SMI. 2002. Lithostraphic Units of the Suliman and Kirthar Provinces, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta, Records 107, p. 1-63.

Shah SMI. 2009. Stratigraphy of Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta, Memoir 22, p. 1-381.

Wilson JL. 1975. Carbonate Facies in Geologic History Springer-Verlag. New York p. 1-471.