Int. J. Biosci.12( 5), 247-252, May 2018
The assessment of Hepatitis C Virus based on seroprevalence with respect to its risk factors is carried out amongst the volunteers of Tehsil Takht Bhai district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This type of study has never been carried out here in this region so far, so we done this research study to explore the prevalence ratio of HCV in this region. We used HCV Ab rapid test cassette serum/plasma (USA) kit to detect the antibodies produce by immune system in reaction to HCV in the serum/plasma of volunteers. Then ELISA was carried out for the ICT positive individuals and hence finally ELISA positive samples were reconfirmed by RT-PCR for Hepatitis C Virus. In every case of HCV socioeconomic details were noted apparently amongst the victims. The study population comprised of 640 volunteers, 385 (60.2%) males and 255 (39.8%) females. The overall seroprevalence was found to be 4.69% of HCV in Tehsil Takht Bhai district Mardan. This seroprevalence ratio was 5.19% in males and 3.92% in females. ICT positive samples were then refined by 3rd generation ELISA which indicated that 86.67% of the ICT positive volunteers had antibodies against HCV. Moreover to confirm the active infection, ELISA positive samples were investigated by real time PCR which showed that 65.38% of the ELISA positive volunteers had HCV RNA in their blood. Significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection include contaminated reused syringes/blades, blood transfusion, surgical operations and dental procedures. Body weakness was common symptom in HCV positive volunteers. Generally we can protect ourselves from Hepatitis C Virus via blood screening before donation and to avoid injecting equipment i-e needles etc, sterilizing surgical equipments and following safe sexual activities.
Akbar N, Basuki B, Mulyanto H, Garabrant DH, Sulaiman A, Noer HM. 1997. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, transfusions and risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. Journal Gastroenterology and Hepatology 12, 752-7.
Ali A, Ahmad H, Ali I, Khan S, Zaidi G, Idrees M. 2010. Prevalence of active hepatitis c virus infection in district mansehra Pakistan. Virology Journal 7(1), 334.
Almani SA, Memon AS, Qureshi AF, Memon NM. 2002. Hepatitis viral status in Sindh. Professional Med J 9(1), 36-43.
Alter MJ. 1997. The epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis Clin Liver Dis 1, 559-568.
Bhattacharya S, Badrinath S, Hamide A. Sujatha S. 2003. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus in a hospital based general population in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 21, 43-45.
Dusheiko G, Wedemeyer H. 2012. New protease inhibitors and direct‐acting antivirals for hepatitis C: interferon’s long goodbye. Gut 61, 1647-1652.
Esteban JI, Gómez J, Martell M, Cabot B, Quer J, Camps J, Guardia J. 1996. Transmission of hepatitis C virus by a cardiac surgeon. New England Journal of Medicine 334(9), 555-561.
Frommel D, Tekle-Haimanot R, Berhe N, Aussel L, Verdier M, Preux PM, Denis F. 1993. A survey of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Ethiopia. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 49(4), 435-439.
Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. 2014. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of hepatology 61(1), S45-S57.
Grobusch MP, Alpermann U, Schwenke S, Jelinek T, Warhurst DC. 1999. False-positive rapid tests for malaria in patients with rheumatoid factor. Lancet 353, 297.
Hashmi A, Saleem K, Soomro JA. 2010. Prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C virus seropositivity in female individuals in Islamabad, Pakistan. International journal of preventive medicine 1(4), 252.
Irfan A, Arfeen S. 2004. Hepatitis C virus infection in spouses. Pak J Med Res 43(3), 113-6.
Kato N. 2000. Genome of human hepatitis C virus (HCV), Gene organization, sequence diversity, and variation. Microb Comp Genomics 5(3), 129-51.
Khan MSA, Khalid M, Ayub N, Javed M. 2004. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Mardan, NWFP: a hospital based study.-. Rawal Medical Journal, 29(2), 57-60.
Khan N, Ali I, Ahmad N, Iqbal A, Rehman L, Munir I, Swati Z. 2011. Prevalence of active HCV infection among the blood donors of Khyber Pakhtunkwa and FATA region of Pakistan and evaluation of the screening tests for anti-HCV. Virology journal 8(1), 154.
Khokhar, N., Gill, M. L., & Malik, G. J. (2004). General seroprevalence of hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infections in population. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons-Pakistan: JCPSP 14(9), 534-536.
Kim WR. 2002. Global epidemiology and burden of hepatitis C. Microbes Infect 4, 1219-1225.
Koh C, Zhao X, Samala N, Sakiani S, Liang TJ, Talwalkar JA. 2013. AASLD clinical practice guidelines: a critical review of scientific evidence and evolving recommendations. Hepatology 58, 2142-2152.
Kwenti TE, Njouom R, Njunda LA, Kamga HL. 2011. Comparison of an Immunochromatographic Rapid Strip Test, ELISA and PCR in the Diagnosis of Hepatitis C in HIV Patients in Hospital Settings in Cameroon. Clinical Medicine and Diagnostics 1(1), 21-7.
Piazza M, Borgia G, Picciato L, Nappa S, Cicciarello S, Orlando R. 1995. Detection of hepatitis C virus-RNA by polymerase chain reaction in dental surgeries. J Med Virol 45, 40-42.
Ryan KJ, Ray CG. 2004. Sherris Medical Microbiology. New York: McGraw Hill 551-2.
Sacristan B, Gastanares MI, Elena A, Sacristan M, Barcenilla J, García J. Srivastava AV, Czerska B, Williams C, Alesh I, Krese L, IIluang MA, Drost C, Smith C, Nemeh H, Tita C, Brewer R, Lanfear D. 2009. High rates of false-positive hepatitis C antibody tests can occur after left ventricular assist device implanation. J Heart Lung Transplant 28,159-160.
Sun CA, Chen HC, Lu CF, You SL, Mau YC, Ho MS, Chen CJ. 1999. Transmission of hepatitis C virus in Taiwan: prevalence and risk factors based on a nationwide survey. Journal of medical virology, 59(3), 290-296.
The Global Burden of Hepatitis C, Working Group. 2004. lobal burden of disease (GBD) for hepatitis C. J Clin Pharmacol 44, 20-9.
Wasley A, Alter MJ. 2000. Epidemiology of hepatitis C; geographic differences and temporal trends. Seminars Liver Dis 20, 1-16.
World Health Organization. 2004. Global burden of disease (GBD) for hepatitis C. J Clin Pharmacol 44(1), 20-29.
Yangüela, J. 1996. Seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis C virus infection in a general population from the region of La Rioja, Spain. Medicina Clinica 107(9), 331-335.