Significance of pollination services in crop and plant diversity in tropical Africa

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/12/2017
Views (358) Download (32)

Significance of pollination services in crop and plant diversity in tropical Africa

Filemon Elisante, Ernest R. Mbega, Patrick A. Ndakidemi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 6), 206-223, December 2017.
Certificate: JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


There exist diverse communities of plants in the tropics. These plants offer habitat to a number of insect pollinators that directly or indirectly play a significant role in sustaining tropical biodiversity through pollination process. The insect pollinators are capable of transferring pollen grains from anther of one flower to the stigma of another or the same flower enabling wild plants and cultivated crops to reproduce. Among others, pollinator-dependent crops contribute to about 35% of the world crop production. About 94% of flowering plants in the tropical region estimated to receive animal pollination benefits. However, climate change, agricultural intensification, land use change, intensive monoculture and use of industrial pesticides and fertilizers are major threats to pollinators’ exists. Although tropical Africa is blessed with diverse pollinators, its people are still lacking basic knowledge on pollination but also its implication as ecosystem service in maintaining tropical biodiversity. The intention of this review therefore is to bridge the knowledge gap among African communities by highlighting the significance of pollination services, threats facing pollinators and appropriate conservation strategies that could help to enhance pollinators for better ecosystem services in this region. Involvement of policy makers, farmers, land managers and private institutions to discuss issues related to ecosystem services will likely help to increase the level of awareness. Formulation of appropriate pollinators’ conservation policies, conservation agriculture practicing, restoration of degraded habitats, habitat management and monitoring of pollinators’ populations may be a good foundation towards protection of pollinators necessary for crop and plant diversity in tropical Africa.


Ackerman JD. 2000. Abiotic pollen and pollination: ecological, functional and evolutionary perspectives. Plant Systematics and Evolution 222, 167-185.

Aizen MA, Garibaldi LA, Cunningham SA, Klein AM. 2009. How much does agriculture depend on pollinators? Lessons from long-term trends in crop production. Annals of Botany 103, 1579-1588. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcp076

Allen-Wardell G, Bernhardt P, Bitner R, Burquez A, Buchmann S, Cane J, Cox PA, Dalton V, Feinsinger P, Ingram M, Inouye D, Jones CE, Kennedy K, Kevan P, Koopowitz H, Medellin R, Medellin-Morales S, Nabhan GP. 1998. The Potential Consequences of Pollinator Declines on the Conservation of Biodiversity and Stability of Food Crop Yields. Conservation Biology 12, 8-7.

Allsopp M. 2004. Cape honeybee (Apis mellifera capensis Eshscholtz) and varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) threats to honeybees and beekeeping in Africa. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 24, 87-94. DOI: 10.1079/IJT20041

Anderson DL, Giacon H. 1992. Reduced Pollen Collection by Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies Infected with Nosema apis and Sacbrood Virus. Journal of Economic Entomology 85, 47-51.

Archer CR, Pirk CWW, Carvalheiro LG, Nicolson SW. 2014. Economic and ecological implications of geographic bias in pollinator ecology in the light of pollinator declines. Oikos 123, 401-407. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00949.x

Ashworth L, Quesada M, Casas A, Aguilar R, Oyama K. 2009. Pollinator-dependent food production in Mexico. Biological Conservation 142, 1050-1057.

Asiko G, Julius K, Jared M, Christine K. 2017. Increasing Bee Forage for a Sustainable Bee Industry in Kenya. Journal of Food Science and Engineering 7, 262-266. DOI: 10.17265/2159-5828/2017.05.004

Bartomeus I, Potts SG, Steffan-Dewenter I, Vaissière BE, Woyciechowski M, Krewenka KM, Tscheulin T, Roberts SPM, Szentgyörgyi H, Westphal C, Bommarco R. 2014. Contribution of insect pollinators to crop yield and quality varies with agricultural intensification. Peer J 2, e328. DOI 10.7717/peerj.328

Bawa KS. 1990. Plant-Pollinator Interactions in Tropical Rain Forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21, 399-422.

Beekman M, Ratnieks FLW. 2000. Long-range foraging by the honey-bee, Apis mellifera L. Functional Ecology 14, 490-496. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2435.2000.00443.x

Bhattacharya A. 2004. Flower visitors and fruitset of Anacardium occidentale. Annales Botanici Fennici 41, 385-392.

Biesmeijer JC, Roberts SPM, Reemer M, Ohlemüller R, Edwards M, Peeters T, Schaffers AP, Potts SG, Kleukers R, Thomas CD, Settele J, Kunin WE. 2006. Parallel Declines in Pollinators and Insect-Pollinated Plants in Britain and the Netherlands. Science 313, 351-354. DOI: 10.1126/science.1127863

Blanche KR, Ludwig JA, Cunningham SA. 2006. Proximity to rainforest enhances pollination and fruit set in orchards. Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 1182-1187. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01230.x

Blüthgen N, Menzel F, Blüthgen N. 2006. Measuring specialization in species interaction networks. BMC Ecology 6, 9. 1186/1472-6785-6-9

Bolmgren K, Eriksson O, Linder, HP. 2003. Contrasting Flowering Phenology and Species Richness in Abiotically and Biotically Pollinated Angiosperms. Evolution 57, 2001-2011. DOI:

Bommarco R, Marini L, Vaissière BE. 2012. Insect pollination enhances seed yield, quality, and market value in oilseed rape. Oecologia 169, 1025-1032. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2271-6

Bonebrake TC, Deutsch CA. 2012. Climate heterogeneity modulates impact of warming on tropical insects. Ecology 93, 449-455. DOI: 10.1890/11-1187.1

Boulter SL, Kitching RL, Zalucki JM, and Goodall KL. 2006. Reproductive Biology and Pollination in Rainforest Trees: Techniques for a Community-level Approach. Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management, Rainforest CRC, Cairns, Australia, pp. 78.

Briggs HM, Perfecto I, Brosi BJ. 2013. The Role of the Agricultural Matrix: Coffee Management and Euglossine Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) Communities in southern Mexico. Environmental Entomology 42, 1210-1217. DOI: 10.1603/EN13087.

Brittain CA, Vighi M, Bommarco R, Settele J, Potts SG. 2010. Impacts of a pesticide on pollinator species richness at different spatial scales. Basic and Applied Ecology 11, 106-115. DOI:10.1016/j.baae. 2009.11.007

Brosi BJ, Daily GC, Shih TM, Oviedo F, Duran G. 2008. The effects of forest fragmentation on bee communities in tropical countryside. Journal of Applied Ecology 45, 773-783. DOI: 10.1111/j. 1365-2664.2007.01412.X

Carvalheiro LG, Seymour CL, Nicolson SW, Veldtman R. 2012. Creating patches of native flowers facilitates crop pollination in large agricultural fields: mango as a case study. Journal of Applied Ecology 49, 1373-1383. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02217.x

Carvalheiro LG, Seymour CL, Veldtman R, Nicolson SW. 2010. Pollination services decline with distance from natural habitat even in biodiversity-rich areas. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 810-820. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01829.x

Castillo RA, Caballero H, Boege K, Fornoni J, Domínguez CA. 2012. How to cheat when you cannot lie? Deceit pollination in Begonia gracilis. Oecologia 169, 773-782. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-012-2250-y.

Chautá-Mellizo A, Campbell SA, Bonilla MA, Thaler JS, Poveda K. 2012. Basic and Applied Ecology 13, 524-532. baae.2012.08.013

Classen A, Peters MK, Kindeketa WJ, Appelhans T, Eardley CD, Gikungu MW, Hemp A, Nauss T, Steffan-Dewenter I. 2015. Temperature versus resource constraints: which factors determine bee diversity on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania? Global Ecology and Biogeography 24, 642-652.

Cook JM, Segar ST. 2010. Speciation in fig wasps. Ecological Entomology 35, 54-66. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2009.01148.x

Cook SM, Bartlet E, Murray DA, Williams IH. 2002. The role of pollen odour in the attraction of pollen beetles to oilseed rape flowers. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 104, 43-50. DOI: 10.1046/j.1570-7458.2002.00989.x

Corbet SA, Fussell M, Ake R, Fraser A, Gunson C, Savage A, Smith K. 1993. Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees. Ecological Entomology 18, 17-30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1993. tb01075.x

Culley TM, Weller SG, Sakai AK. 2002. The evolution of wind pollination in Angiosperms. TRENDS in Ecology & Evolution 17, 361-369.

Dar SA, Hassan GI, Padder BA, Wani AR, Parey SH. 2017. Pollination and evolution of plant and insect interaction. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6, 304-311.

De Palma A, Abrahamczyk S, Aizen MA, Albrecht M, Basset Y, Bates A, Blake RJ, Boutin C, Bugter R, Connop S, Cruz-López L, Cunningham SA, Darvill B, Diekötter T, Dorn S, Downing N, Entling MH, Farwig N, Felicioli A, Fonte SJ, Fowler R, Franzén M, Goulson D, Grass I, Hanley ME, Hendrix SD, Herrmann F, Herzog F, Holzschuh A, Jauker B, Kessler M, Knight ME, Kruess A, Lavelle P, Le Féon V, Lentini P, Malone LA, Marshall J, Pachón EM, McFrederick QS, Morales CL, Mudri-Stojnic S, Nates-Parra G, Nilsson SG, Öckinger E, Osgathorpe L, Parra-H A, Peres CA, Persson AS, Petanidou T, Poveda K, Power EF, Quaranta M, Quintero C, Rader R, Richards MH, Roulston T, Rousseau L, Sadler JP, Samnegård U, Schellhorn NA, Schüepp C, Schweiger O, Smith-Pardo AH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stout JC, Tonietto RK, Tscharntke T, Tylianakis JM, Verboven HAF, Vergara CH, Verhulst J, Westphal C, Yoon HJ, Purvis A. 2016. Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: Effects of geographic and taxonomic biases. Scientific Reports 6, 31153. DOI: 10.1038/srep31153.

Denisow B, Wrzesień M. 2015. The Importance of Field-Margin Location for Maintenance of Food Niches for Pollinators. Journal of Apicultural Science 59, 27-37. DOI: 10.1515/jas -2015-0002 2015

Deutsch CA, Tewksbury JJ, Huey RB, Sheldon KS, Ghalambor CK, Haak DC, Martin PR. 2008. Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 6668-6672. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0709472105.

Dicks LV, Abrahams A, Atkinson J, Biesmeijer J, Bourn N, Brown C, Brown MJF, Carvell C, Connolly C, Cresswell JC, Croft P, Darvill B, De Zylva P, Effingham P, Fountain M, Goggin A, Harding D, Harding T, Hartfield C, Heard MS, Heathcote R, Heaver D, Holland J, Howe M, Hughes B, Huxley T, Kunin WE, Little J, Mason C, Memmott J, Osborne J, Pankhurst T, Paxton RJ, Pocock MJO, Potts SG, Power EF, Raine NE, Ranelagh E, Roberts S, Saunders R, Smith K, Smith RM, Sutton P, Tilley LAN, Tinsley A, Tonhasca A, Vanbergen AJ, Webster S, Wilson A, Sutherland WL. 2013. Identifying key knowledge needs for evidence-based conservation of wild insect pollinators: a collaborative cross-sectoral exercise. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6, 435-446. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00221.x

Dixon KW. 2009. Pollination and restoration. Science 325, 571-573. DOI: 10.1126/science.1176295

Eardley CD, Gikungu M, Schwarz MP. 2009. Bee conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: diversity, status and threats. Apidologie 40, 355-366. DOI: 10.1051/apido/2009016

Easton AH, Goulson D. 2013. The Neonicotinoid Insecticide Imidacloprid Repels Pollinating Flies and Beetles at Field-Realistic Concentrations. PLoS ONE 81, e54819. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054819

FAO. 1995. Pollination of cultivated plants in the tropics. ISBN 92-5-103659-4, ISSN 1010-1365.

FAO. 2007. The Plan of Action of the African Pollinator Initiative, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome Italy.

FAO. 2014. Building a common vision for sustainable food and agriculture. Principles and approaches Rome.

FAO. 2016. Climate change and food security: risks and responses, Rome. www.fao. org/3/a-i5188e.pdf).

Feltham H, Park K, Minderman J, Goulson D. 2015. Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops. Ecology and Evolution 5, 3523- 3530. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1444.

Fischer RA, Edmeades GO. 2010. Breeding and Cereal Yield Progress. Crop Science 50, 85- 98. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2009.10.0564

Freitas BM, Imperatriz-Fonseca VL, Medina LM, Kleinert AP, Galetto L, Nates-Parra G, Quezada-Eúan JJG. 2009. Diversity, threats and conservation of native bees in the Neotropics. Apidologie 40, 332-346. DOI: 10.1051/apido/2009012

Freitas BM, Paxton RJ. 1996. The role of wind and insects in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) pollination in NE Brazil. Journal of Agricultural Science 126, 319-326.

Gallai N, Salles J, Settele J, Vaissière BE. 2009. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68, 810-821.

Garibaldi LA, Steffan-Dewenter I, Winfree R, Aizen MA, Bommarco R, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Carvalheiro LG, Harder LD, Afik O, Bartomeus I, Benjamin F, Boreux V, Cariveau D, Chacoff NP, Dudenhöffer JH, Freitas BM, Ghazoul J, Greenleaf S, Hipólito J, Holzschuh A, Howlett B, Isaacs R, Javorek SK, Kennedy CM, Krewenka KM, Krishnan S, Mandelik Y, Mayfield MM, Motzke I, Munyuli T, Nault BA, Otieno M, Petersen J, Pisanty G, Potts SG, Rader R, Ricketts TH, Rundlöf M, Seymour CL, Schüepp C, Szentgyörgyi H, Taki H, Tscharntke T, Vergara CH, Viana BF, Wanger TC, Westphal C, Williams N, Klein AM. 2013. Wild pollinators enhance fruits set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. Science 339, 1608-1611. http://

Gathmann A, Tscharntke T. 2002. Foraging ranges of solitary bees. Journal of Animal Ecology 71, 757-764. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2656.2002.00641.x

Gill HK, Garg H. 2014. Pesticides: Environmental Impacts and Management Strategies; Chapter 8.

González-Varo JP, Biesmeijer JC, Bommarco R, Potts SG, Schweiger O, Smith HG, Steffan-Dewenter I, Szentgyörgyi H, Woyciechowski M, Vilà M. 2013. Combined effects of global change pressures on animal mediated pollination. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 28, 524-530. 10.1016/j.tree.2013.05.008

Goulson D. 2003. Conserving wild bees for crop pollination. Food, Agriculture and Environment 1, 142-144.

Graystock P, Yates K, Darvill B, Goulson D, Hughes WOH. 2013. Emerging dangers: Deadly effects of an emergent parasite in a new pollinator host. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 114, 114-119.

Greenleaf SS, Williams NM, Winfree R, Kremen C. 2007. Bee foraging ranges and their relationship to body size. Oecologia 153, 589-596. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-007-0752-9.

Gumbert A. 2000. Color choices by bumble bees (Bombus terrestris): innate preferences and generalization after learning. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 48, 36-43. DOI: 10.1007/s002650000213

Hannon LE, Sisk TD. 2009. Hedgerows in an agri-natural landscape: Potential habitat value for native bees. Biological Conservation 142, 2140-2154. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.04.014

Harrison JF, Roberts SP. 2000. Flight respiration and energetics. Annul Review of Physiology 62, 179-205.

Harrison RD, Rasplus J. 2006. Dispersal of fig pollinators in Asian tropical rain forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22, 631-639. DOI: 10.1017/S0266467 406003488

Harrison T, Winfree R. 2015. Urban drivers of plant-pollinator interactions. Functional Ecology 29, 879-888. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12486

Heard TA. 1999. The role of stingless bees in crop pollination. Annual Review of Entomology 44, 183-206.

Heath SK, Soykan CU, Velas KL, Kelsey R, Kross SM. 2017. A bustle in the hedgerow: Woody field margins boost on farm avian diversity and abundance in an intensive agricultural landscape. Biological Conservation 212, 153-161. http://dx.doi .org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.05.031

Hegland SJ, Nielsen A, Lázaro A, Bjerknes A, Totland Ø. 2009. How does climate warming affect plant-pollinator interactions? Ecology Letters 12, 184-195. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01269.x

Henry M, Béguin M, Requier F, Rollin O, Odoux JF, Aupinel P, Aptel J, Tchamitchian S, Decourtye A. 2012. A Common Pesticide Decreases Foraging Success and Survival in Honey Bees. Science 336, 348-350.

Herrera CM, Perez R, Alonso C. 2006. Extreme intraplant variation in nectar sugar composition in an insect-pollinated perennial herb. American Journal of Botany 93, 575-581. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.93.4.575

Holzschuh A, Dainese M, González-Varo JP, Mudri-Stojnić S, Riedinger V, Rundlöf M, Scheper J, Wickens JB, Wickens VJ, Bommarco R, Kleijn D, Potts SG, Roberts SPM, Smith HG, Vilà M, Vujić A, Steffan-Dewenter I. 2016. Mass-flowering crops dilute pollinator abundance in agricultural landscapes across Europe. Ecology Letters 19, 1228-1236. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12657

Horrigan L, Lawrence RS, Walker P. 2002. How Sustainable Agriculture Can Address the Environmental and Human Health Harms of Industrial Agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives 110, 445- 456.

IPBES. 2016. The assessment report of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services on pollinators, pollination and food production. S.G. Potts, V. L. Imperatriz-Fonseca, and H. T. Ngo, (Eds). Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany pp 552.

Kasina JM, Mburu J, Kraemer M, Holm-mueller K. 2009a. Economic Benefit of Crop Pollination by Bees: A Case of Kakamega Small-Holder Farming in Western Kenya. Journal of Economic Entomology 102, 467-473. DOI:

Kasina M, Kraemer M, Martius C, Wittmann D. 2009b. Farmers’ knowledge of bees and their natural history in Kakamega district, Kenya. Journal of Apicultural Research and Bee World 48, 126-133. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.

Kennedy CM, Lonsdorf E, Neel MC, Williams NM, Ricketts TH, Winfree R, Bommarco R, Brittain C, Burley AL, Cariveau D, Carvalheiro LG, Chacoff NP, Cunningham SA, Danforth BN, Dudenhöffer J, Elle E, Gaines HR, Garibaldi LA, Gratton C, Holzschuh A, Isaacs R, Javorek SK, Jha S, Klein AM, Krewenka K, Mandelik Y, Mayfield MM, Morandin L, Neame LA, Otieno M, Park M, Potts SG, Rundlöf M, Saez A, Steffan-Dewenter I, Taki H, Viana BF, Westphal C, Wilson JK, Greenleaf SS, Kremen C. 2013. A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on wild bee pollinators in agro ecosystems. Ecology Letters 16, 584-599. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12082.

Kevan GP. 1999. Pollinators as bioindicators of the state of the environment: species, activity and diversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74, 373-393.

Kevan PG, Clark EA, Thomas VG. 1990. Insect pollinators and sustainable agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 5, 13-22. DOI: 10.1017/S0889189300003179

Kiatoko N, Raina SK, Muli E, Mueke J. 2014. Enhancement of fruit quality in Capsicum annum through pollination by Hypotrigona gribodoi in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Entomological Science 17, 106-110. DOI:10.1111/ens.12030

Klein AM, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke T. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. The Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 274, 303-313.

Klein AM. 2009. Nearby rainforest promotes coffee pollination by increasing spatio-temporal stability in bee species richness. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 1838-1845. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.05.005

Kovács-Hostyánszki A, Espíndola A, Vanbergen AJ, Settele J, Kremen C, Dicks LV. 2017. Ecological intensification to mitigate impacts of conventional intensive land use on pollinators and pollination. Ecology Letters 20, 673-689. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12762

Larson BMH, Kevan PG, Inouye DW. 2001. Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators. The Canadian Entomologist 133, 439-465.

López-Hoffman L, Varady RG, Flessa KW, Balvanera P. 2010. Ecosystem services across borders: a framework for transboundary conservation policy. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8, 84-91. DOI: 10.1890/070216

Lundgren R, Lázaro A, Totland O. 2013. Experimental pollinator decline affects plant reproduction and is mediated by plant mating system. Journal of Pollination Ecology 11, 46-56.

Mayer C, Adler L, Armbruster WS, Dafni A, Eardley C, Huang S, Kevan PG, Ollerton J, Packer L, Ssymank A, Stout JC, Potts SG. 2011. Pollination Ecology in the 21st century: Key questions for future research. Journal of Pollination Ecology 3, 8-23.

McCall C, Primack RB. 1992. Influence of Flower Characteristics, Weather, Time of Day, and Season on Insect Visitation Rates in Three Plant Communities. Journal of Botany 79, 434-442.

Melin A, Rouget M, Midgley J, Donaldson JS. 2014. Pollination ecosystem services in South African agricultural systems. South African Journal of Science 110, 1-9. sajs.2014/20140078

Memmott J, Waser NM, Price MV. 2004. Tolerance of pollination networks to species extinctions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271, 2605-2611 DOI:10.1098/rspb. 2004.2909

Midgley JJ, Bond WJ, Jarzembowski EA, Grubb PJ. 1991. How Important is Biotic Pollination and Dispersal to the Success of the Angiosperms? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 333, 209-215.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis, Island Press, Washington DC.

Motten AF, Campbell DR, Alexander DE, Miller HL. 1981. Pollination Effectiveness of Specialist and Generalist Visitors to a North Carolina Population of Claytonia virginica. Ecology 62, 1278-1287. DOI: 10.2307/1937292

Munyuli T. 2011a. Farmers’ perceptions of pollinators’ importance in coffee production in Uganda. Agricultural Sciences 2, 318-333. DOI:10.4236/as.2011.23043

Munyuli T. 2011b. Factors governing flower visitation patterns and quality of pollination services delivered by social and solitary bee species to coffee in central Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 49, 501-509. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01284.x

Mwangi D, Kasina M, Nderitu J, Hagen M, Gikungu M, Kraemer M. 2012. Diversity and abundance of native bees foraging on hedgerow plants in the Kakamega farmlands, western Kenya. Journal of Apicultural Research 51, 298-305. DOI 10.3896/IBRA.

Nicholls CI, Altieri MA, Vazquez L. 2016. Agroecology: Principles for the Conversion and Redesign of Farming Systems. Journal of Ecosystem and Ecography 5, 010. DOI: 10.4172/2157-7625.S5-010

Norfolk O, Sadiki LL, Broughton B, Otieno M, Nuttman C. 2012. Tea breaks: how flower visitors can benefit from unplanned floral buffer strips in a Tanzanian tea plantation. African Journal of Ecology 51, 380-384.

Ollerton J, Johnson SD, Cranmer L, Kellie S. 2003. The Pollination Ecology of an Assemblage of Grassland Asclepiads in South Africa. Annals of Botany 92, 807-834. DOI:10.1093/aob/mcg206.

Ollerton J, Winfree R, Tarrant S. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos 120, 321-326. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18644.x

Otieno M, Woodcock BA, Wilby A, Vogiatzakis IN, Mauchline AL, Gikungu MW, Potts SG. 2011. Local management and landscape drivers of pollination and biological control services in a Kenyan agro-ecosystem. Biological Conservation 144, 2424-2431. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.06.013

Pandit S, Choudhury BC. 2001. Factors affecting pollinator visitation and reproductive success in Sonneratia caseolaris and Aegiceras corniculatum in a mangrove forest in India. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17, 431-447. DOI:10.1017/S02664 67401001298

Parachnowitsch AL, Kessler A. 2010. Pollinators exert natural selection on flower size and floral display in Penstemon digitalis. New Phytologist 188, 393-402. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03410.x

Peters VE, Carroll CR, Cooper RJ, Greenberg R, Solis M. 2013. The contribution of plant species with a steady-state flowering phenology to native bee conservation and bee pollination services. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6, 45-56. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00189.x

Potts SG, Biesmeijer JC, Kremen C, Neumann P, Schweiger O, Kunin WE. 2010. Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25, 345-353. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.007

Power AG. 2010. Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365, 2959-2971. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2010.0143.

Raina SK, Kioko E, Zethner O, Wren S. 2011. Forest Habitat Conservation in Africa Using Commercially Important Insects. Annual Review of Entomology 56, 465-485. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ento-120709-144805.

Rands SA, Whitney HM. 2011. Field Margins, Foraging Distances and Their Impacts on Nesting Pollinator Success. PLoS ONE 10, e25971. DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0025971

Regal PJ. 1982. Pollination by Wind and Animals: Ecology of Geographic Patterns. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13, 497-524.

Reinhard J, Srinivasan MV, Zhang S. 2004. Scent-triggered navigation in honeybees. Nature 427, 411. DOI:10.1038/427411a

Renner SS, Feil JP. 1993. Pollinators of Tropical Dioecious Angiosperms. American Journal of Botany 80, 1100-1107.

Richards AJ. 2001. Does Low Biodiversity Resulting from Modern Agricultural Practice Affect Crop Pollination and Yield? Annals of Botany 88, 165172. DOI:10.1006/anbo.2001.1463.

Ricketts TH. 2004. Tropical Forest Fragments Enhance Pollinator Activity in Nearby Coffee Crops. Conservation Biology 18, 1262- 1271. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00227.x

Sala OE, Chapin III FS, Armesto JJ, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, Huber-Sanwald E, Huenneke LF, Jackson RB, Kinzig A, Leemans R, Lodge DM, Mooney HA, Oesterheld M, Poff NL, Sykes MT, Walker BH, Walker M, Wall DH. 2000. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287, 1770- 1774. DOI: 10.1126/science. 287.5459.1770

Samnegård U, Hambäck PA, Lemessa D, Nemomissa S, Hylander K. 2016. A heterogeneous landscape does not guarantee high crop pollination. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 283, 1-9.

Scheper J, Holzschuh A, Kuussaari M, Potts SG, Rundlöf M, Smith HG, Kleijn D. 2013. Environmental factors driving the effectiveness of European agri-environmental measures in mitigating pollinator loss – a meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 16, 912-920. DOI: 10.1111/ele.12128.

Sidhu CS, Joshi NK. 2016. Establishing Wildflower Pollinator Habitats in Agricultural Farmland to Provide Multiple Ecosystem Services. Frontiers in Plant Science 7, 363. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00363

Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Brook BW, Ng PKL. 2004. Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19, 654-660. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.09.006

Steffan-Dewenter I, Schiele S. 2008. Do resources or natural enemies drive bee population dynamics in fragmented habitats? Ecology 89, 1375-1387. DOI: 10.1890/06-1323.1

Szabo TI. 1980. Effect of Weather Factors on Honeybee Flight Activity and Colony Weight Gain. Journal of Apicultural Research 19, 164-171. DOI: 10.1080/00218839.1980.11100017

Terry I, Walter GH, Moore C, Roemer R, Hull C. 2007. Odor-Mediated Push-Pull Pollination in Cycads. Science 318, 70. DOI: 10.1126/science.1145147

Tester M, Langridge P. 2010. Breeding Technologies to Increase Crop Production in a Changing World. Science 327, 818-821. DOI: 10.1126/science.1183700

Toivonen M, Herzon I, Kuussaari M. 2016. Community composition of butterflies and bumblebees in fallows: niche breadth and dispersal capacity modify responses to fallow type and landscape. Journal of Insect Conservation 20, 23-34. DOI: 10.1007/s10841-015-9836-8.

Van der Sluijs JP, Simon-Delso N, Goulson D, Maxim L, Bonmatin J, Belzunces LP. 2013. Neonicotinoids, bee disorders and the sustainability of pollinator services. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 5, 293-305 http://dx. doi. org/ 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.05.007

Van Hamburg H, Guest PJ. 1997. The Impact of Insecticides on Beneficial Arthropods in Cotton Agro-Ecosystems in South Africa. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32, 63-68.

Vicens N, Bosch J. 2000. Weather-Dependent Pollinator Activity in an Apple Orchard, with Special Reference to Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae and Apidae). Environmental Entomology 29, 413-420. DOI:

Waser NM, Chittka L, Price MV, Williams NM, Ollerton J. 1996. Generalization in pollination systems, and why it matters. Ecology 77, 1043-1060. DOI: 10.2307/2265575.

Weiblen GD. 2002. How to be a fig wasp. Annual Review of Entomology 47, 299-330.

Weiner CN, Werner M, Linsenmair KE, Blüthgen N. 2014. Land-use impacts on plant–pollinator networks: interaction strength and specialization predict pollinator declines. Ecology 95, 466-474.

Westphal C, Vidal S, Horgan FG, Gurr GM, Escalada M, Chien HV, Tscharntke T, Heongh KL, Settele J. 2015. Promoting multiple ecosystem services with flower strips and participatory approaches in rice production landscapes. Basic and Applied Ecology 16, 681-689.

Whitehorn PR, O’Connor S, Wackers FL. 2012. Neonicotinoid Pesticide Reduces Bumble Bee Colony Growth and Queen Production. Science 336, 351-352. DOI: 10.1126/science.1215025.

Wiebes JT. 1989. Agaonidae (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea) and Ficus (Moraceae): fig wasps and their figs, IV (African Ceratosolen). Proceedings C 92, 251-266.

Wilcove DS, Koh LP. 2010. Addressing threats to biodiversity from oil-palm agriculture. Biodiversity Conservation 19, 999-1007. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-009-9760-x

Wright GA, Schiestl FP. 2009. The evolution of floral scent: the influence of olfactory learning by insect pollinators on the honest signaling of floral rewards. Functional Ecology 23, 841-851. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2009.01627.x

Zhang W, Ricketts TH, Kremen C, Carney K, Swinton SM. 2007. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics 64, 253-260. 2007.02.024

Zurbuchen A, Landert L, Klaiber J, Müller A, Hein S, Dorn S. 2010. Maximum foraging ranges in solitary bees: only few individuals have the capability to cover long foraging distances. Biological Conservation 143, 669-676. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon. 2009.12.003