J. Bio. Env. Sci.17(2), 22-31, August 2020
This field experiment was conducted for two cropping seasons to evaluate the effects of fallow and tillage managements in rainfed lowland rice and on the soil chemical properties especially on soil organic matter (SOM). Fallow managements which are mowing and leaving rice stubbles during fallow period were assessed. Effects of conventional and zero-tillage and nitrogen fertilizer managements were also determined. Generally, fallow and tillage managements have no effect on soil C:N ratio, and on other soil chemical properties after two cropping seasons. However, notable increase in OM after two cropping seasons was observed due to the decomposed 30% threshed rice straw that were incorporated in the soil during fallow period. Increased SOM is also very evident since the soil has very low baseline OM content. In terms of grain yield, fallow- and tillage-managed plots did not vary significantly but for nitrogen fertilizer managed plots, significant effects were noted for two cropping seasons. Full-N applied plots have significantly higher yields compared with half-N and 0-N. The soil indigenous nitrogen supply (0-N plots) could not satisfy the need of the crop throughout its growing period. For tillage practice, rice under deep tillage produced significantly higher plants and grain yield during the second cropping season. This is due to higher OM content noted in these plots compared to zero-tilled plots, although the difference is not significant. Nevertheless, improvement of fallow and tillage management may lead to improved soil properties and increased yield of rice in the long term.
Artacho P, Bonomelli C, Meza F. 2009. Nitrogen application in irrigated rice growth in Mediterranean conditions: Effects on grain yield, dry matter production, nitrogen uptake, and nitrogen use efficiency. Journal of Plant Nutrition 32, 1574-1593.
Bird J, Eagle A, Horwath W, Hair M, Zilbert E, van Kessel C. 2002. Long-term studies find benefits, challenges in alternative rice straw management. California Agronomy 56(2), 69-75.
Castillo MB, Mamaril CP, Paterno ES, Sanchez PB, Badayos RB, Sta. Cruz PC. 2012. Soil chemical and physical properties with rice straw management during fallow period. Philippine Journal of Crop Science 37(1), 15-26.
Dagdag BC, Santos RL, Jarmin PV, Galamay CG, Ferraris TC. 1967. Soil Survey of Cagayan Province, Soil Report 36, 123. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Manila, Philippines.
Daryanto S, Wang L, Jacinthe PA. 2017. Impacts of no-tillage management on nitrate loss from corn, soybean and wheat cultivation: A meta-analysis. Scientific reports 7(1), 12117.
Dobermann A, Fairhurst TH. 2002. Rice straw management. Better Crops International 16, Special Supplement, May 2002.
Gao S, Tanji KK, Scardaci SC. 2004. Impact of Rice Straw Incorporation on Soil Redox Status and Sulfide Toxicity. Agronomy Journal 96, 70-76.
Haefele SM, Konboon Y. 2009. Nutrient management for rainfed lowland rice in Northeast Thailand. Field Crops Research 114(3), 374-385.
Lal R. 1994. Tillage effects on soil degradation, soil resilience, soil quality and sustainability. Soil Tillage Research. 27. 1-8.
Mandal NN, Chaudhry PP, Sinha D. 1992. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash uptake of wheat (var. Sonalika). Environment and Ecology 10, 297 (Field Crop Abstract 46 (1), 30; 1993).
Tuyen TQ, Tan PS. 2001. Effects of straw management, tillage practices on soil fertility and grain yield of rice. Omonrice 9, 74-78.
Yadvinder-Singh Y, Gupta RK, Gurpreet-Singh G, Jagmohan-Singh J, Sidhu HS Bijay-Singh B. 2009. Nitrogen and residue management effects on agronomic productivity and nitrogen use efficiency in rice-wheat system in Indian Punjab. Nutrient cycling in agroecosystems 84, 141-154.
Yoshida S, Cock JH, Parao FT. 1972. Physiological aspects of high yield. International Rice Research Institute. Rice breeding p. 455-469.