Spatial distribution and nidification record of Himalayan Monal and Koklass Pheasants in Kalam district Swat, KP, Pakistan.

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2014
Views (153) Download (2)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Spatial distribution and nidification record of Himalayan Monal and Koklass Pheasants in Kalam district Swat, KP, Pakistan.

Akbar Shah, Mian Sayed Khan, Muhammad Siddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Naveed Akhtar, Kausar Saeed
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 2), 296-305, August 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Himalayan Monal and Koklass were observed from three selected sites (Batandar, Anakar and Janshai) in winter about 7900ft and 7500ft and in summer 12381ft and 10108ft from the sea level respectively. The altitudinal migration of Himalayan Monal and Koklass from lower to upper elevated zones was the result of human activities and livestock grazing in summer season while their downward migration was the result of heavy snowfall in their natural habitats. The first nidification record was also observed in kalam valley during the study sites where three nests were detected one of Monal pheasant and two of Koklass pheasant. The Koklass nests were present on the ground at batandar (8620ft), and Janshai (9305ft) while the only nest of Himalayan Monal was observed in Janshai (9447ft). The nesting behavior of Koklass was professionally like other birds but on the ground while the Monal nest was just like a temporary scrapes on the ground. Concluding from the study work that nests of these pheasants are mostly affected from local residents in early summer and foraging mostly from livestock. Awareness and education to the local villagers will help in conservation of habitats. The strict action of wildlife staff against poachers and illegal hunters will also be helpful for the conservation of these pheasants.

VIEWS 2

Ali S, Ripley SD. 1978. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

Ali S, Ripley SD. 1983. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan.Compact edition.Oxford University Press Delhi.animals. Olney, P.J.S., Mace, G.M. and Feistner, A.T.C. (Eds.).

Baker ECS. 1930. Game-birds of India, Burma and Ceylon. John Bale and Son, London.

Chittampalli M, Bhatkhande, BPN. 1993. Hansdev’s Mrigpakeshi Shastra. M.S.Board of literature and culture, Mumbai 1-279 p.

Gaston AJ, Garson PJ, Hunter ML. 1981. Present distribution and Status of pheasants in Himachal Pradesh. Journal of World Pheasant Association 6, 1030.

Gregory RD, Noble D, Field R, Marchant J, Raven M, Gibbons DW. 2003. Using birds as indicators of biodiversity. Ornis Hung., 12-13, 11-24.

Grimmett RC, Inskipp, Inskipp T. 2001. Birds of Indian Subcontinent, Christopher Helm, London. 384 p.

Howman KCR. 1993. Pheasants of the world.Their breeding and management.Hancock House publishers, Surrey.

Hume AO, Oates EW. 1890. The Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds.2nd ed.Vol.III. R. H. Porter, London, UK.

IUCN, 1998. International Union for Conservation of Nature guidelines for re-introductions Prepared by the IUCN/SSR Reintroduction Specialist Group.IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.

Khan AA, Khan R, Ullah A, Ali M, Mahmood JA, Sheikh KM. 1996. Conservation Perspectives of the Imperial Aquila heliaca and Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis in Pakistan. Meyburg. B-U. & R. D. Chancellor eds. Eagle Studies World Walking Group on Birds of Prey (WWGBP) Berlin, London & Paris. 3 p.

Mirza ZB, Wasiq H. 2007. A field guide to birds of Pakistan. Published by WWF-Pakistan, Bookland Lahore. 366p.

Mirza ZB. 1980. Status of pheasants in Pakistan. In: C.W.D. Savage, editor. Pheasants in Asia. 72-75.

PCDP. 2002. Community based committees for rehabilitation work. Report On Participatory relief, rehabilitation and development programs in Palas, Kohistan. Record of Palas Conservation and Development Project.

Ramesh K, Sathyakumar S, Rawat GS. 1999. Recent trends in the Pheasant populations of Great Himalayan National Park, India Conservation implications. Proceedings of The National Symposium on Wildlife research, conservation and management, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

Ramesh K. 2003. An ecological study on pheasants of the Great Himalayan National Park, western Himalaya.Dissertation, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.

Ridley M. 1986. Pheasants in the Asia.World Pheasant Association, Reading, U.K.

Roberts TJ. 1991. The birds of Pakistan.Vol: 1. Non-Passeriformes, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Simiyu A. 1998. Gamebird hunting: Development of management systems in Kenya and its promotion in wildlife utilization. Unpublished final technical report for the Biodiversity Support Program.

Zaman IU. 2008. Conservation of pheasants in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Professional paper.