Spatial-temporal assessment of urban growth and land use change in Islamabad using object-based classification method

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2020
Views (371) Download (22)

Spatial-temporal assessment of urban growth and land use change in Islamabad using object-based classification method

Rabia Shabbir, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad
J. Bio. Env. Sci.16( 3), 125-143, March 2020.
Certificate: JBES 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Rapid land use changes have taken place in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, over the past decades due to accelerated urbanization and industrialization. In this study, land use changes in metropolitan area of Islamabad was observed by the combined use of GIS and satellite remote sensing for a time period of 20 years. High resolution Google Earth images were downloaded from 1995-2015 and Object-based classification method was used for accurate classification using eCognition software. The information regarding residential area, industrial area, barren land, arable land, agricultural area, vegetation, forest, water and transportation infrastructure was extracted. The results showed that the city experienced a spatial expansion, rapid urban growth, land use change and expanding transportation infrastructure. The study concluded integration of GIS and remote sensing as an effective approach for analyzing the spatial pattern of urban growth and land use change.


Adeel M. 2010. Methodology for identifying urban growth potential using land use and population data: A case study of Islamabad Zone IV. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2, 32-41.

Aitkenhead MJ, Aalders IH. 2011. Automating land cover mapping of Scotland using expert system and knowledge integration methods. Remote Sensing of Environment 115(5), 1285-1295.

Alexakis DD, Gryllakis MG, Koutroulis AG, Agapiou A, Themistocleous K, Tsanis IK, Michaelides S, Pashiardis S, Demetriou C, Aristeidou K, Retalis A, Tymvios F,hadjimitsis DG. 2014. GIS and remote sensing techniques for the assessment of land use changes impact on flood hydrology: the case study of Yialias Basin in Cyprus. Naturalhazards and Earth System Sciences 14, 413-426.

Ali M, Khan SJ, Aslam I, Khan Z. 2008. Simulation of the impacts of land-use change on surface runoff of Lai Nullah Basin in Islamabad, Pakistan. Landscape and Urban Planning 102, 271-279.

Anderson JR, Hardy EE, Roach JT, Witmer RE. 1976. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data, Vol. 964. Washington: US Government Printing Office.

Arfan M. 2008. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Urbanization and its Effects on Periurban Land Use System (M.Sc. Thesis). Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Arsanjani JJ, Helbich M, de Noronha Vaz E. 2013. Spatiotemporal simulation of urban growth patterns using agent-based modeling: the case of Tehran. Cities 32, 33-42.

Atu JE, Ayama OR, Eja EI. 2013. Urban sprawl effects on biodiversity in peripheral agricultural Lands in Calabar, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 3(7), 219-231.

Batista MH, Haertel V. 2010. On the classification of remote sensing high spatial resolution image data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 31(20), 5533-5548.

Batty M. 2008. The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science 319 (5864), 769-771.

Belal AA, Moghanm FS. 2011. Detecting urban growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques in Al Gharbiya governorate, Egypt. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 14(2), 73-79.

Bento AM, Cropper M, Mobarak AM, Vinha K. 2003. The impact of urban spatial structure on travel demand in the United States. World Bank p. 3007.

Benz UC, Hofmann P, Willhauck G, Lingenfelder I, Heynen M. 2004. Multi-resolution, object-oriented fuzzy analysis of remote sensing data for GIS-ready information. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 58(3-4), 239-258.

Blaschke T. 2010. Object based image analysis for remote sensing. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 65(1), 2-16.

Brueckner JK, Helsley RW. 2011. Sprawl and blight. Journal of Urban Economics 69(2), 205-213.

Butt A, Shabbir R, Ahmad SS, Aziz N. 2015. Land use change mapping and analysis using Remote Sensing and GIS: a case study of Simly watershed, Islamabad, Pakistan. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 18(2), 251-259.

Butt MJ, Waqas A, Iqbal MF, Muhammad G, Lodhi MAK. 2012. Assessment of urban sprawl of Islamabad metropolitan area using multi-sensor and multi-temporal satellite data. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 37(1), 101-114.

Czamanski D, Benenson I, Malkinson D, Marinov M, Roth R, Wittenberg L. 2008. Urban sprawl and ecosystems can nature survive? International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics 2, 321-366.

Dadras M, Shafri HZ, Ahmad N, Pradhan B, Safarpour S. 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis of urban growth from remote sensing data in Bandar Abbas city, Iran. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 18 (1), 35-52.

Deep S, Saklani A. 2014. Urban sprawl modeling using cellular automata. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Sciences 17 (2), 179-187.

Dewan AM, Yamaguchi Y. 2009. Land use and land cover change in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh: using remote sensing to promote sustainable urbanization. Applied Geography 29 (3), 390-401.

Dribault Y, Chokmani K, Bernier M. 2012. Monitoring seasonal hydrological dynamics of minerotrophic peatlands using multi-date GeoEye-1 very high resolution imagery and object-based classification. Remote Sensing 4(7), 1887-1912.

Duro DC, Franklin SE, Dubé MG. 2012. A comparison of pixel-based and object-based image analysis with selected machine learning algorithms for the classification of agricultural landscapes using SPOT-5 HRG imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 118, 259-272.

Ebrahimpour-Masoumi H. 2012. Urban sprawl in Iranian cities and its differences with the western sprawl. Spatium 27, 12-18.

EEA. 2006. Urban Sprawl in Europe, The ignored challenge. European Environmental Agency Report 10/2006.

El-shayal M. 2017. Elshayal Smart GIS ver. 17.003,

Ewing R, Pendall R, Chen D. 2003a. Measuring Sprawl and Its Impacts. Smart Growth America, Washington, DC.

Ewing R, Pendall R, Chen D. 2003b. Measuring sprawl and its transportation impacts. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1831, 175-183.

Fan F, Wang Y, Qiu M, Wang Z. 2009. Evaluating the temporal and spatial urban expansion patterns of Guangzhou from 1979 to 2003 by remote sensing and GIS methods. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 23(11), 1371-1388.

Gao Y, Mas JF, Navarrete A. 2009. The improvement of an object-oriented classification using multi-temporal MODIS EVI satellite data. International Journal of Digital Earth 2(3), 219-236.

Girard LF, Cerreta M, de Toro P, Forte F. 2007. The human sustainable city: values, approaches and evaluative tools. In: Deakin M, Mitchell G, Nijkamp P, Vreeker R, Eds. Sustainable urban development 2: The environmental assessment methods, London: Routledge p. 65-93.

Glaeser EL, Kahn ME. 2004. Sprawl and Urban Growth.handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, vol. IV. Elsevier, Amsterdam p. 2481-2527.

Gong P, Wang J, Yu L, Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Liang L, Niu Z, Huang X, Fu H, Liu S, Li C, Li X, Fu W, Liu C, Xu Y, Wang X, Cheng Q, Hu L, Yao W, Zhang H, Zhu P, Zhao Z, Zhang H, Zheng Y, Ji L, Zhang Y, Chen H, Yan A, Guo J, Yu L, Wang L, Liu X, Shi T, Zhu M, Chen Y, Yang G, Tang P, Xu B, Giri C, Clinton N, Zhu Z, Chen J, Chen J. 2013. Finer resolution observation and monitoring of global land cover: First mapping results with Landsat TM and ETM+ data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 34(7), 2607-2654.

Government of Pakistan (GoP). 1999. District census report of Islamabad. Population census organization. Statistics Division. Census Publication Report No.16, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Hagler B. 2007. Environmental baseline study of Margalla and Margalla north blocks. MOL Pakistan Oil and Gas Company BV, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Hansen MC, DeFries RS, Townshend JR, Sohlberg R. 2000. Global land cover classification at 1 km spatial resolution using a classification tree approach. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21(6-7), 1331-1364.

Hathout S. 2002. The use of GIS for monitoring and predicting urban growth in East and West St Paul, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Environmental Management 66 (3), 229-238.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 2005. Rapid environmental appraisal of developments in and around murree hills. IUCN, Islamabad Pakistan.

Iqbal MF, Khan IA. 2014. Spatiotemporal land use land cover change analysis and erosion risk mapping of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 17(2), 209-229.

Jaeger JA, Bertiller R, Schwick C, Kienast F. 2010. Suitability criteria for measures of urban sprawl. Ecological Indicators 10 (2), 397-406.

Jat MK, Garg PK, Khare D. 2008a. Modelling of urban growth using spatial analysis techniques: a case study of Ajmer city (India). International Journal of Remote Sensing 29 (2), 543-567.

Jat MK, Garg PK, Khare D. 2008b. Monitoring and modelling of urban sprawl using remote sensing and GIS techniques. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information 10 (1), 26-43.

Jenks M, Dempsey N. 2005. Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities. Oxford: Elsevier.

Jensen JR. 1996. Introductory Digital Image Processing: A Remote Sensing Perspective (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prenticehall.

Kaimaris D, Georgoula O, Patias P, Stylianidis E. 2011. Comparative analysis on the archaeological content of imagery from Google Earth. Journal of Cultural Heritage 12(3), 263-269.

Kaplan G, Avdan U. 2017. Object-based water body extraction model using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. European Journal of Remote Sensing 50(1), 137-143.

Kotkin J, Cox W. 2013. The World’s Fastest-Growing Megacities, Forbes. Retrieved from megacities

Kugelman M. (Ed.). 2014. Pakistan’s Runaway Urbanization: What Can be Done? Asia Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

Kushner JA. 2002. Smart growth, new urbanism and diversity: progressive planning movements in America and their impact on poor and minority ethnic populations. UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 21, 45.

Laliberte AS, Browning DM, Rango A. 2012. A comparison of three feature selection methods for object-based classification of sub-decimeter resolution UltraCam-L imagery. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo information 15, 70-78.

Lea C, Curtis AC. 2010. Thematic accuracy assessment procedures: National Park Service Vegetation Inventory, version 2.0. Natural Resource Report NPS/2010/NRR-2010/204, National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Liu M, Li H, Li L, Man W, Jia M, Wang Z, Lu C. 2017. Monitoring the invasion of Spartina alterniflora using multi-source high-resolution imagery in the Zhangjiang Estuary, China. Remote Sensing 9(6), 539.

Liu T, Yang X. 2015. Monitoring land changes in an urban area using satellite imagery, GIS and landscape metrics. Applied Geography 56, 42-54.

Liu Y, Phinn SR. 2003. Modelling urban development with cellular automata incorporating fuzzy-set approaches. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 27(6), 637-658.

Lu D, Weng Q. 2007. A survey of image classification methods and techniques for improving classification performance. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28(5), 823-870.

Malarvizhi K, Kumar SV, Porchelvan P. 2016. Use of high resolution google earth satellite imagery in landuse map preparation for urban related applications. Procedia Technology 24 (2016), 1835-1842.

Manandhar R, Odeh I, Ancev T. 2009. Improving the accuracy of land use and land cover classification of Landsat data using post-classification enhancement. Remote Sensing 1(3), 330-344.

Masser I. 2001. Managing our urban future: the role of remote sensing and geographic information systems. Habitat International 25 (4), 503-512.

Mathieu R, Aryal J, Chong A. 2007. Object-based classification of Ikonos imagery for mapping large-scale vegetation communities in urban areas. Sensors 7(11), 2860-2880.

Mendoza ME, Granados EL, Geneletti D, Pérez-Salicrup DR, Salinas V. 2011. Analysing land cover and land use change processes at watershed level: a multitemporal study in the Lake Cuitzeo Watershed, Mexico (1975–2003). Applied Geography 31(1), 237-250.

Mohammady S. 2014. A Spatio-Temporal Urban Expansion Modeling, a Case Study Tehran Metropolis, Iran. Acta Geography Debrecina Landscape and Environment Series 8 (1), 10.

Nkomeje F. 2017. Comparative Performance of Multi-Source Reference Data to Assess the Accuracy of Classified Remotely Sensed Imagery: Example of Landsat 8 OLI Across Kigali City-Rwanda 2015. International Journal of Engineering Works 4(1), 10-20.

Ogundare BA. 2016. A comparative analysis of agricultural land use in Ikere Ekiti, Nigeria. An International Peer-reviewed Journal 27, 1-6.

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS). 2017. District wise census results 2017, p. 1-100.

Pereira PA, Monkevicˇius A, Siarova H. 2014. Public perception of environmental, social and economic impacts of urban sprawl in Vilnius. Socialiniuz Moksluz Studijos 6(2), 259-290.

Rawat JS, Biswas V, Kumar M. 2013. Changes in land use/cover using geospatial techniques: a case study of Ramnagar town area, district Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 16 (1), 111-117.

Rawat JS, Kumar M. 2015. Monitoring land use/cover change using remote sensing and GIS techniques: A case study ofhawalbagh block, district Almora, Uttarakhand, India. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 18(1), 77-84.

Roshan GR, Shahraki SZ, Sauri D, Borna R. 2010. Urban sprawl and climatic changes in Tehran. Journal of Environment and Health. Science 7(1), 43-52.

Shahraki SZ, Sauri D, Serra P, Modugno S, Seifolddini F, Pourahmad A. 2011. Urban sprawl pattern and land-use change detection in Yazd, Iran.habitat International 35(4), 521-528.

Shao Y, Lunetta RS. 2012. Comparison of support vector machine, neural network, and CART algorithms for the land-cover classification using limited training data points. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 70, 78-87.

Sheikh IM, Pasha MK, Williams VS, Raza SQ, Khan KSA. 2007. Environmental geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi Area, Northern Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan. Bulletin 2078-G, p. 1-2.

Simmons C. 2007. Ecological footprint analysis: A useful method for exploring the interaction between lifestyles and the built environment. Sustainable Urban Development, London: Routledge p. 223-235.

Sudhira HS, Ramachandra TV, Jagadish KS. 2004. Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modelling using GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information 5(1), 29-39.

Sung CY, Yi YJ, Li MH. 2013. Impervious surface regulation and urban sprawl as its unintended consequence. Land Use Policy 32, 317-323.

Tanvir A, Shahbaz B, Suleri A. 2006. Analysis of myths and realities of deforestation in northwest Pakistan: implications for forestry extension. International Journal Agriculture and Biology 8, 107-110.

Tchuenté ATK, Roujean JL, De Jong SM. 2011. Comparison and relative quality assessment of the GLC2000, GLOBCOVER, MODIS and ECOCLIMAP land cover data sets at the African continental scale. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information 13(2), 207-219.

Tewolde MG, Cabral P. 2011. Urban sprawl analysis and modeling in Asmara, Eritrea. Remote Sensing 3(10), 2148-2165.

Thomas N, Hendrix C, Congalton RG. 2003. A Comparison of Urban Mapping Methods using High-resolution Digital Imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69(9), 963-972.

Tian G, Liu J, Xie Y, Yang Z, Zhuang D, Niu Z. 2005. Analysis of spatio-temporal dynamic pattern and driving forces of urban land in China in 1990s using TM images and GIS. Cities 22(6), 400-410.

Tu J, Xia ZG, Clarke KC, Frei A. 2007. Impact of urban sprawl on water quality in eastern Massachusetts, USA. Environmental Management 40(2), 183-200.

UNCHS. 1995. Indicators programme: Monitoring human settlements: Urban indicators worksheet (Vol. 2). Centre for Human Settlements, United Nations.

United Nations. 2014. World Urbanization Prospects. United Nations Population estimates and projections of major Urban Agglomerations. lahore -population/

Van Ginkel H. 2008. Urban future. The cities of the developing world are spectacularly ill-prepared for the explosion in urban living. Nature 456, 32-33.

Wijedasa LS, Sloan S, Michelakis DG, Clements GR. 2012. Overcoming limitations with Landsat imagery for mapping of peat swamp forests in Sundaland. Remote Sensing 4(9), 2595-2618.

Xie Y, Mei Y, Guangjin T, Xuerong X. 2005. Socio-economic driving forces of arable land conversion: A case study of Wuxian City, China. Global Environmental Change 15(3), 238-252.

Yu L, Gong P. 2012. Google Earth as a virtual globe tool for Earth science applications at the global scale: progress and perspectives. International Journal of Remote Sensing 33(12), 3966-3986.

Yu Q, Gong P, Clinton N, Biging G, Kelly M, Schirokauer D. 2006. Object-based detailed vegetation classification with airborne high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72(7), 799-811.

Zhang Y, Guindon B. 2006. Using satellite remote sensing to survey transport-related urban sustainability: Part 1: Methodologies for indicator quantification. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 8(3), 149-164.

Zhou H, Aizen E, Aizen V. 2013. Deriving long term snow cover extent dataset from AVHRR and MODIS data: Central Asia case study. Remote Sensing of Environment 136, 146-162.

Zhou W, Huang G, Troy A, Cadenasso ML. 2009. Object-based land-cover classification of shaded areas in high spatial resolution imagery of urban areas: A comparison study. Remote Sensing of Environment 113(8), 1769-1777.

Zhou W, Troy A, Grove M. 2008. Object-based land cover classification and change analysis in the Baltimore metropolitan area using multi-temporal high resolution remote sensing data. Sensors  8(3), 1613-1636.

Zhou W, Troy A. 2008. An object‐oriented approach for analysing and characterizing urban landscape at the parcel level. International Journal of Remote Sensing 29(11), 3119-3135.

Zubair AO. 2006. Change detection in land use and Land cover using remote sensing data and GIS: A case study of Ilorin and its environs in Kwara State (MSc. Thesis). Department of Geography, University of Ibadan, Nigeria p. 176.